Oral gavage of nano-encapsulated conjugated acrylic acid-bile acid formulation in type 1 diabetes altered pharmacological profile of bile acids, and improved glycaemia and suppressed inflammation
Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is a secondary hydrophilic bile acid, metabolised in the gut, by microbiota. UDCA is currently prescribed for primary biliary cirrhosis, and of recently has shown β-cell protective effects, which suggests potential antidiabetic effects. Thus, this study aimed to design targeted-delivery microcapsules for oral uptake of UDCA and test its effects in type 1 diabetes (T1D).
UDCA microcapsules were produced using alginate-NM30 matrix. Three equal groups of mice (6–7 mice per group) were gavaged daily UDCA powder, empty microcapsules and UDCA microcapsules for 7 days, then T1D was induced by alloxan injection and treatments continued until mice had to be euthanised due to weight loss > 10% or severe symptoms develop. Plasma, tissues, and faeces were collected and analysed for bile acids’ concentrations.
UDCA microcapsules brought about reduction in elevated blood glucose, reduced inflammation and altered concentrations of the primary bile acid chenodeoxycholic acid and the secondary bile acid lithocholic acid, without affecting survival rate of mice.
The findings suggest that UDCA exerted direct protective effects on pancreatic β-cells and this is likely to be associated with alterations of concentrations of primary and secondary bile acids in plasma and tissues.
KeywordsDiabetes mellitus Bile acid Inflammation Ursodeoxycholic acid Lithocholic acid Nanoparticles
Farnesoid X receptor
Type 1 diabetes
The authors would like to acknowledge the Australian Postgraduate Award (APA) and Curtin Research Scholarship (CRS). The authors also acknowledge the Curtin-seeding grant for the support and also acknowledge the use of laboratory equipment, scientific and technical assistance of Microscopy and Microanalysis Facility at Curtin University which has been partially funded by the University, State and Commonwealth Governments. The work is partially supported by the European Union Horizon 2020 research project and innovation program under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie Grant Agreement No 872370.
Conception and design of the project: AM, RT, GL, BK, HA-S. Analysis and interpretation of research data: AM, NZ. CI, RT, GL, MM, S G-K, HA-S. Drafting significant part of the work or critically revising it, which contributes to the interpretation: AM, NZ, CI, RT, GL, MM, SG-K, BK, HA-S. Significant contribution to data interpretation and presentation resulting in significant improvement of quality: AM, NZ, CI, HA-S. Provided data or analytical skills, which add significantly to the design, quality and readability of the work: AM, NZ, CI, HA-S.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Al-Salami H has been and is currently receiving of funding from Beijing Nat-Med Biotechnology Co. Ltd. The other authors have no conflict of interest to declare.
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