A study on initial setting time and the mechanical properties of AASC using the PS ball as fine aggregate

  • Avinash. H. TalkeriEmail author
  • A. U. Ravi Shankar


India is the second largest producer of cement in the world with an annual production of 455 Million Tonnes (MT) which is expected to reach up to 550MT by 2020. In India, the increased demand for cement in the construction industry is required to meet the needs of infrastructure development. However, the production of Portland cement releases significant amounts of CO2 to the atmosphere. Therefore, it is necessary to look for sustainable solutions for concrete production by the use of supplementary cementitious materials. The alternative replacement for Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) can be Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS), Fly-ash, Silica fume, Rice-husk ash, which is the various industrial by-products. In this present work, an attempt was made to develop Alkali Activated Slag Concrete (AASC) using Precious Slag (PS) ball as fine aggregate. The development of AASC was made with GGBS as the principal binder. Mixes were developed with binder content 443 kg/m3, Sodium Silicate (SS)/Sodium Hydroxide (SH) ratio of 1 and their performance when exposed to ambient temperature were studied. Alkali binder ratio (0.3) with 8, 10, 12 and 14M NaOH was selected for all the AASC mixes. The test results showed that the slump values for the different mixes satisfying the MoRTH guidelines for concrete pavements. The AASC mixes have higher compressive strength ranging between 41–64 MPa. The fatigue life of the AASC mix was has improved by the addition of PS ball, at the higher concentration of NaOH.


AASC PS ball Molarity Flexure fatigue analysis 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



The authors are thankful to the National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal for supporting us to carry out this research work.


  1. [1]
    N. P. Rajamane, M. C. Nataraja, N. Lakshmanan, J. K. Dattatreya, The introduction towards Geopolymer concrete, Indian Concr. J. 1 (2011) 25–28.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    A. Purdon, activation mechanism of alkalis on slag, J. Soci. Chem. Indus. 59 (9) 1940 191–202.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    V. D. Glukhovsky, Silicates for soil and their properties, manufacturing technology and field application, (DTech. Sc. Thesis), Civil engineering institute of Kiev, Ukraine, 1959.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    K. Komnitsas, D. Zaharaki, Geopolymerization: A review and the prospect for the mineral industry, Miner. Eng. 20 (14) (2007) 1261–1277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    J. Davidovits, Soft mineralogy and geopolymer. In Proceedings of the first International Conference on Geopolymer, Compiegne, France, 1 1988, pp. 19–23.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    J. Davidovits, Process and fabrication of sintered-panels, a resulting panel from this procedure. US Patent no. 3940470. US patent, Alexandria, Virginia, 1972.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    E. Hermann, C. Kunze, R. Gatzweiler, J. Davidovits, The long term stability of geopolymer concrete by solidification of radioactive residue a special emphasis, In Proc. Geopolym. Conference, Saint-Quentin, France, 1999.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    A. R. Rafiza, M. A. Mustafa, H. Kamarudin, I Khairul, G. S. Ioan, D. Hardjito, Y. Zarina, V. S Andrei, The study on volcano ash as lightweight aggregates using the geopolymerisation technique, Revista de Chimie 65 (2014) 828–834.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    C. G. Juenger, F. Winnefeld, J. Provis, J. H. Idekerd, Advances in alternative cementitious binders, Cement Concr. Res. 41(12) (2011) 1232–1243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    D. Hardjito, B. V. Rangan, The study on Development of low calcium fly-ash based geopolymer concrete and its properties, The Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia, 2005.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    C. Gong, N. Yang, A study on the alkali-activated red mud-slag and its hydration using phosphate as a retarder, Cement Concr. Res. 30 (7) (2000) 1013–1016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    A. R. Brough, M. Holloway, J. Sykes, J. Atkinson, Sodium silicate based alkali activated slag mortars part II. Sodium chloride or malic acid as a retarder, Cement Concr. Res. 30 (9) (2000) 1375–1379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    J. J. Chang, The setting time characteristics of sodium silicate activated slag pastes, Cement Concr. Res. 33 (7) (2003) 1005–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    F. G. Collins, J. G. Sanjayan, The study on the workability and strength of AASC using ultra-fine materials and slag as the binder, Cement Concr. Res. 29 (3) (1999) 459–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    A. Fernandez-Jimenez, J. G. Palomob, F. Puertas, Alkali-activated slag mortars mechanical strength behaviour, Cement Concr. Res. 29 (8) (1999) 1313–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    B. M. Mithun, M. C. Narasimhan, Performance of alkali activated slag concrete mixes incorporating copper slag as fine aggregate, J. Clean. Prod. 112 (2016) 837–844.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    R. Manjunath R. M. C. Narasimhan, Development of self compacting concrete for AASC mixes, J. Buil. Eng. 17 (2018) 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    R. Alizadeh, Utilizing the electric arc furnace slag as the alternative to aggregates for concrete mix- environmental issue, CMI Report, Tehran, Iran, 1996.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    M. Maslehuddin, Comparitive study on steel slag and crushed limestone as aggregate and its properties for concrete, Constr. Buil. Mater. 17 (2003) 105–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    M. R. Shekarchi, M. Alizadeh, P. Chini, M. Ghods, S. Hoseini, S. Montazer, Study on electric arc furnace slag as aggregates and its properties in concrete, ACI 6th Inter. Confer. Recent Adv. Concr. Technol., Bucharest, Romania, 2003, pp. 451–464.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    C. Shi, P. V. Krivenko, D. Roy, Alkali activated cement and concretes, Taylor Francis, Abington, UK, 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    P. Chindaprasirt, T. Tawatchai, S. Vanchai, C. Jaturapitakkul, Pervious high calcium flyash geopolymer concrete, Constr. Buil. Mater. 30 (2012) 366–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    K. Somna, C. Jaturapitakkul, P. Kajitvivhyanukaul, and P. Chindaprasirt, NaOH activated ground fly ash geopolymer cured at ambient temperature, Fuel 90 (6) (2011) 2118–2124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    P. Duxson, J. Provis, G. C. Lukey, J.S. Van-Deventer, The role of inorganic polymer technology in the development of green concrete, Cement Concr. Res. 37 (12) (2007) 1590–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    S. Hanjitsuwan, P. Hunpratub, S. Thongbai., V. Maensiri-Sata., P. Chindaprasirt, Effects of higher concentration of NaOH on the physical and electrical conductivity properties of fly ash geopolymer paste, Cement Concr. Compos. 45 (2014) 9–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    S. Bernal, M. R. De-Gutierrez, J. Provis, Durability and engineering properties of AASC mix, Constr. Buil. Mater. 33 (2012) 99–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Chinese Society of Pavement Engineering. Production and hosting by Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringNITK SurathkalMangaluruIndia

Personalised recommendations