Assessment of Primary Control Reserve Requirement from Generator Considering a Battery Energy Storage System

  • Woo-Jung Kim
  • Yu-Seok Lee
  • Yeong-Han ChunEmail author
Original Article


In Korean power system, 376 MW of battery energy storage system (BESS) functions as primary control reserve. The current total requirement of primary control reserve is 750 MW, which is procured by 376 MW of BESS and 374 MW of conventional generators. The BESS installed in the Korean power system can supply its energy for 10 min after loss of generators. If all the energy of the BESS is supplied during the system frequency restoration, this can cause a shortage in primary control reserve. Therefore, a new approach for reserve procurement is required to cope with the shortage in primary control reserve in case the second contingency might happen. Pumped storage hydro generators are good candidates for the additional reserve sources. In this paper, we propose a methodology for procuring additional primary control reserve considering their availability varying in real time and droop characteristics. In the case study, the effect of the proposed methodology is verified through a dynamic simulation.


Battery energy storage system Operating reserves Primary control reserve Tertiary control reserve Pumped storage generator 



  1. 1.
    Kundur P (1994) Power system stability and control. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 581–626Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nagsarkar TK, Sukhija MS (2007) Power systems analysis. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 339–381Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Saadat H (2002) Power system analysis, 2nd edn. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 460–585Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bevrani H (2008) Robust power system frequency. Springer, New York, pp 15–37Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rebours Y, Kirschen D (2005) What is Spinning Reserve?, Release 1. The University of Manchester, ManchesterGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    North American Electric Reliability Corporation (2010) Standard BAL-002-1—disturbance control performance. North American Electric Reliability Corporation, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity (2009) Continental europe operation handbook, policies P1.
  8. 8.
  9. 9.
    Yousef HA (2017) Power system load frequency control: classical and adaptive fuzzy approaches. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 3–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    North American Electric Reliability Corporation (2011) Balancing and frequency control: a technical document prepared by the NERC resources subcommittee. North American Electric Reliability Corporation, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ela E, Milligan M, Kirby B (2011) Operating reserves and variable generation. NREL, Cole Boulevard Golden, Coloardo, Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-51978Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Simens Energy, Incorporation (2009) PSS®E program operation, model library, turbine-governor model data sheetsGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electronic and Electrical EngineeringHongik UniversitySeoulKorea

Personalised recommendations