# Islanding Detection Scheme for Inverter-Based Distributed Generation Systems Using Cumulative Reactive Power Harmonics

## Abstract

In this paper, a new islanding detection scheme using cumulative reactive power harmonics (CRPH) for inverter-based distributed generation (DG) systems is presented. In the proposed method, first, any changes in the system are detected using a change detection index. Desired harmonic components of the voltage and current signals at DG terminals are extracted by a discrete Kalman filter (DKF). Then, a criterion based on CRPH is defined using the extracted harmonic signatures. The change detection index is based on the difference of measured current and its estimated fundamental component. At the initial moments of any events, reactive power controller of the inverter is disabled just for a short time interval. Since the main grid as the main source of reactive power loses in islanding condition, the reactive harmonic power of the system experiences significant variations. Then, islanding can be discriminated from other similar conditions by processing the captured signals of the mentioned time interval. Performance of the proposed method is assessed using plenty of simulations. Moreover, the superiority of the proposed method is confirmed by performing a comparison with other similar techniques.

## Keywords

Islanding detection Reactive power harmonics Discrete Kalman filter Distributed generation Grid-connected mode## Notes

### Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant funded by the Korean government (MSIP) (no. 2018R1A2A1A05078680).

## References

- 1.Reigosa DD, Briz F, Charro CB, Guerrero JM (2017) Passive islanding detection using inverter nonlinear effects. IEEE Trans Power Electron 32(11):8434–8445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 2.Ghanbari T, Samet H, Hashemi F (2015) Islanding detection method for inverter-based distributed generation with negligible non-detection zone using energy of rate of change of voltage phase angle. IET Gener Transm Distrib 9(15):2337–2350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 3.Bukhari SBA, Saeed M, Zaman U, Haider R, Oh Y-S, Kim C-H (2017) A protection scheme for microgrid with multiple distributed generations using superimposed reactive energy. Int J Electr Power Energy Syst 92:156–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 4.Chung I-Y, Moon S-I (2007) A new islanding detection method using phase-locked loop for inverter-interfaced distributed generators. J Electr Eng Technol 2(2):165–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 5.Haider R et al (2018) Passive islanding detection scheme based on autocorrelation function of modal current envelope for photovoltaic units. IET Gener Transm Distrib 12(3):726–736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 6.Zeineldin HH, El-Saadany EF, Salama MMA (2006) Impact of DG interface control on islanding detection and nondetection zones. IEEE Trans Power Deliv 21(3):1515–1523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 7.Merlin VL, Santos RC, Grilo AP, Vieira JCM, Coury DV, Oleskovicz M (2016) A new artificial neural network based method for islanding detection of distributed generators. Int J Electr Power Energy Syst 75:139–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 8.Dash PK, Padhee M, Panigrahi TK (2012) A hybrid time–frequency approach based fuzzy logic system for power island detection in grid connected distributed generation. Int J Electr Power Energy Syst 42(1):453–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 9.Matic-Cuka B, Kezunovic M (2014) Islanding detection for inverter-based distributed generation using support vector machine method. IEEE Trans Smart Grid 5(6):2676–2686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 10.Bakhshi M, Noroozian R, Gharehpetian GB (2017) Novel islanding detection method for multiple DGs based on forced helmholtz oscillator. IEEE Trans Smart Grid 9:6448–6460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 11.Ray PK, Kishor N, Mohanty SR (2012) Islanding and power quality disturbance detection in grid-connected hybrid power system using wavelet and $S$-transform. IEEE Trans Smart Grid 3(3):1082–1094CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 12.Chen X, Li Y (2014) An islanding detection algorithm for inverter-based distributed generation based on reactive power control. IEEE Trans Power Electron 29(9):4672–4683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 13.Mousavi SYM, Jalilian A, Savaghebi M, Guerrero JM (2018) Autonomous control of current and voltage controlled DG interface inverters for reactive power sharing and harmonics compensation in islanded microgrids. IEEE Trans Power Electron 33:9375–9386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 14.Feng B, Fu M, Ma H, Xia Y, Wang B (2014) Kalman filter with recursive covariance estimation—sequentially estimating process noise covariance. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 61(11):6253–6263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 15.Bishop G, Welch G (2001) An introduction to the kalman filter. Proc SIGGRAPH Course 8(27599–23175):41Google Scholar
- 16.Routray A, Pradhan AK, Rao KP (2002) A novel kalman filter for frequency estimation of distorted signals in power systems. IEEE Trans Instrum Meas 51(3):11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 17.Zadeh RA, Ghosh A, Ledwich G (2010) Combination of Kalman filter and least-error square techniques in power system. IEEE Trans Power Deliv 25(4):2868–2880CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 18.Haider R, Kim CH, Ghanbari T, Bukhari SBA (2018) Harmonic-signature-based islanding detection in grid-connected distributed generation systems using Kalman filter. IET Renew Power Gener 12(15):1813–1822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 19.Enslin JHR, Heskes PJM (2004) Harmonic interaction between a large number of distributed power inverters and the distribution network. IEEE Trans Power Electron 19(6):1586–1593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 20.Bayrak G, Kabalci E (2016) Implementation of a new remote islanding detection method for wind–solar hybrid power plants. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 58:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 21.Czarnecki LS (1983) Measurement of the Individual harmonics reactive power in nonsinusoidal systems. IEEE Trans Instrum Meas 32(2):383–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 22.Jeltsema D (2016) Budeanu’s concept of reactive and distortion power revisited. Przegląd Elektrotechniczny 1(4):70–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 23.Willems JL (2011) Budeanu’s reactive power and related concepts revisited. IEEE Trans Instrum Meas 60(4):1182–1186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 24.Doraiswami R, Cheded L (2012) Kalman filter for parametric fault detection: an internal model principle-based approach. IET Control Theory Appl 6(5):715MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 25.TS Basso (2014) IEEE 1547 and 2030 standards for distributed energy resources interconnection and interoperability with the electricity grid, vol. 15013. National Renewable Energy LaboratoryGoogle Scholar
- 26.Kim MS, Haider R, Cho GJ, Kim CH, Won CY, Chai JS (2019) Comprehensive review of islanding detection methods for distributed generation systems. Energies 12(5):837CrossRefGoogle Scholar