Advertisement

Small Cells Integration with the Macro-Cell Under LTE Cellular Networks and Potential Extension for 5G

  • Mohammed H. Alsharif
  • Rosdiadee NordinEmail author
  • Mohammed Mudhafer Shakir
  • Athirah Mohd Ramly
Original Article
  • 6 Downloads

Abstract

Heterogeneous Networks (HetNet) requires the deployment of small cell networks that can co-exist with the existing macro-cell. To provide a high Quality of Service (QoS), a massive multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) must be equipped with a HetNet of a macro-cell base station to the multiple users. This paper highlights three important aspects of the emerging small cell wireless networks. First, the architectures of small cell networks in LTE wireless network is reviewed, with specific references to the current wireless network standards. Second, the performance evaluation of overlay small cells integrated with the underlay macro-cell is investigated. The third part of this study focuses on the future trends of small cell deployment in 5G and the critical technical preparation needs to be done to allow integration with the existing 4G network. The results show that the proposed integration of 5G small cells into existing macro 4G networks has improved both of the data rate (91.46%) and energy efficiency (98.66%).

Keywords

Fifth generation (5G) Small cell Macro-cell LTE Data rate Energy efficiency MCS 

Notes

References

  1. 1.
    Jafari AH, López-Pérez D, Song H, Claussen H, Ho L, Zhang J (2015) Small cell backhaul: challenges and prospective solutions. EURASIP J Wirel Commun Netw 2015:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Elkourdi T, Simeone O (2011) Femtocell as a relay: an outage analysis. IEEE Trans Wirel Commun 10(12):4204–4213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cheng HT, Callard A, Senarath G, Zhang H, Zhu P (2012) Step-wise optimal low power node deployment in LTE heterogeneous networks. In: 2012 IEEE vehicular technology conference (VTC Fall), pp 1–4Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shimodaira H, Tran GK, Sakaguchi K, Araki K, Kaneko S, Miyazaki N, Konishi S, Kishi Y (2013) Optimization of picocell locations and its parameters in heterogeneous networks with hotspots. IEICE Trans Commun 96(6):1338–1347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chen CS, Nguyen VM, Thomas L (2012) On small cell network deployment: a comparative study of random and grid topologies. In: IEEE Vehicular technology conference (VTC Fall), pp 1–5Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pak Y, Min K, Choi S (2014) Performance evaluation of various small-cell deployment scenarios in small-cell networks. In: 18th IEEE international symposium on consumer electronics (ISCE 2014), pp 1–2Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Guo W, Wang S, Chu X, Zhang J, Chen J, Song H (2013) Automated small-cell deployment for heterogeneous cellular networks. IEEE Commun Mag 51(5):46–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mach P, Becvar Z (2014) Cloud-aware power control for cloud-enabled small cells. 2014 IEEE Globecom Workshops (GC Wkshps), Austin, TX, 2014, pp 1038–1043Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Claussen H, Pivit F, Ho LTW (2009) Self-optimization of femtocell coverage to minimize the increase in core network mobility signaling. Bell Labs Tech J 14(2):155–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yun S, Cho D-H (2010) Traffic density based power control scheme for femto AP. In: IEEE international symposium on personal, indoor and mobile radio communications, pp 1378–1383Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hu Y, Xu C, Ping L (2018) Semi-random access in small cells with user priority. IEEE Commun Lett 99:1Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bastug E, Mehdi B, Debbah M (2014) Living on the edge: the role of proactive caching in 5G wireless networks. IEEE Commun Magazine 52(8):82–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chen S, Qiu L, Liang X (2017) Joint subcarrier assignment and user association for partial caching-based small cell networks. In: 3rd IEEE international conference on computer and communications (ICCC), Chengdu, China, 2017, pp 595–599Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Khan KS, Khan S, Jamalipour A (2017) Multi-link cache data retrieval for delivery phase in ultra dense small cell networks. In: 11th International conference on signal processing and communication systems (ICSPCS), Gold Coast, QLD, 2017, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Blaszczyszyn B, Giovanidis A (2015) Optimal geographic caching in cellular networks. In: IEEE International conference on communications (ICC), London, 2015, pp 3358–3363Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    El Chamie M, Barakat C, Neglia G (2015) Geographically fair in-network caching for mobile data offloading. In: IFIP networking conference (IFIP networking), Toulouse, pp 1–9Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zhang J, Zhang X, Yan Z, Li Y, Wang W, Zhang Y (2016) Social-aware cache information processing for 5G ultra-dense networks. In: 8th International conference on wireless communications and signal processing (WCSP), Yangzhou, pp 1–5Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pantisano F, Bennis M, Saad W, Debbah M (2015) Match to cache: joint user association and backhaul allocation in cache-aware small cell networks. In: IEEE International conference on communications (ICC), London, 2015, pp 3082–3087Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pantisano F, Bennis M, Saad W, Valentin S, Debbah M (2013) Matching with externalities for context-aware user-cell association in small cell networks. In: IEEE Global communications conference (GLOBECOM), Atlanta, GA, 2013, pp 4483–4488Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mesodiakaki A, Adelantado F, Alonso L, Di Renzo M, Verikoukis C (2017) Energy- and spectrum-efficient user association in millimeter-wave backhaul small-cell networks. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 66(2):1810–1821CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mondal R, Turkka J, Ristaniemi T, Henttonen T (2013) Positioning in heterogeneous small cell networks using MDT RF fingerprints. In: First international black sea conference on communications and networking (BlackSeaCom), Batumi, 2013, pp 127–131Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rose DM, Hahn S, Kürner T (2014) Automated modelling of realistic multi-storey buildings and the impact of windows on small cell propagation. In: The 8th European conference on antennas and propagation (EuCAP 2014), The Hague, 2014, pp 3468–3472Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Walid A, Sabir E, Kobbane A, Taleb T, Koutbi ME (2016) Exploiting multi-homing in hyper dense LTE small-cells deployments. In: 2016 IEEE wireless communications and networking conference, Doha, 2016, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Xu L, Mao Y, Leng S, Qiao G, Zhao Q (2016) A cluster-based resource allocation strategy with energy harvesting in dense small-cell networks. In: International conference on cyber-enabled distributed computing and knowledge discovery (CyberC), Chengdu, 2016, pp 303–310Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Charbonnier R, Aslam MZ, Corre Y, Lostanlen Y (2017) Mixing deterministic and stochastic propagation for assessing mmwave small-cell networks. In: 11th European conference on antennas and propagation (EUCAP), Paris, 2017, pp 136–140Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Santos R, Kassler A (2016) A SDN controller architecture for small cell wireless backhaul using a LTE control channel. In: 2016 IEEE 17th International symposium on a world of wireless, mobile and multimedia networks (WoWMoM), Coimbra, 2016, pp 1–3Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Akyildiz IF, Gutierrez-Estevez DM, Reyes EC (2010) The evolution to 4G cellular systems: LTE-Advanced. Phys Commun 3(4):217–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ngo DT, Le-Ngoc T (2014) Architectures of small-cell networks and interference management. Springer book, ISBN 978-3-319-04822-2, 2014, (Online). http://www.springer.com/gp/book/9783319048215
  29. 29.
    Debus W (2006) RF Path loss and transmission distance calculations. Axonn, LLC, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ge X, Cheng H, Guizani M, Han T (2014) 5G wireless backhaul networks: challenges and research advances. IEEE Netw 28(6):6–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bojic D, Sasaki E, Cvijetic N, Wang T, Kuno J, Lessmann J, Schmid S, Ishii H, Nakamura S (2013) Advanced wireless and optical technologies for small-cell mobile backhaul with dynamic software-defined management. IEEE Commun Mag 51(9):86–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    GPP TR 36.814, V9.0.0. (2010) Technical specification group radio access network; Evolved universal terrestrial radio access (E-UTRA); Further advancements for E-UTRA physical layer aspects, release 9. Technical report (Online). http://www.qtc.jp/3GPP/Specs/36814-900.pdf. Accessed 09 March 2016
  33. 33.
    Stefania S, Issam T, Matthew B (2011) LTE—the UMTS long term evolution: from theory to practice, 2nd edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Tran T-T, Shin Y, Shin O-S (2012) Overview of enabling technologies for 3GPP LTE-advanced. EURASIP J Wirel Commun Netw 2012:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Alsharif MH, Nordin R, Ismail M (2014) Classification, recent advances and research challenges in energy efficient cellular networks. Wirel Pers Commun 77(2):1249–1269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Auer G, Blume O, Giannini V, Godor I, Imran AM, Jading Y, Katranaras E et al (2010) Energy efficiency analysis of the reference systems, areas of improvements and target breakdown. EARTH project report, Deliv D2(3):1–68Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Alsharif MH, Nordin R (2017) Evolution towards fifth generation (5G) wireless networks: current trends and challenges in the deployment of millimetre wave, massive MIMO, and small cells. Telecommun Syst 64(4):617–637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Alsharif MH, Nordin R, Abdullah NF, Kelechi AH (2018) How to make key 5G wireless technologies environmental friendly: a review. Trans Emerg Telecommun Technol 29(1):e3254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Alsharif MH, Nordin R, Ismail M (2013) Survey of green radio communications networks: techniques and recent advances. J Comput Netw Commun 2013:13Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ding M, Lopez-Perez D, Claussen H, Kaafar MA (2018) On the fundamental characteristics of ultra-dense small cell networks. IEEE Netw 32(3):92–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Zhu Y, Zheng G, Wong K-K, Jin S, Lambotharan S (2018) Performance analysis of cache-enabled millimeter wave small cell networks. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 67(7):6695–6699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kibria MG, Nguyen K, Villardi GP, Ishizu K, Kojima F (2018) Next generation new radio small cell enhancement: architectural options, functionality and performance aspects. IEEE Wirel Commun 25(4):120–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Xu J, Yao J, Wang L, Wu K, Chen L, Lou W (2018) Revolution of self-organizing network for 5G mmwave small cell management: from reactive to proactive. IEEE Wirel Commun 25(4):66–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Zhang M, Polese M, Mezzavilla M, Zhu J, Rangan S, Panwar S, Zorzi M (2019) Will TCP work in mmWave 5G cellular networks? IEEE Commun Mag 57(1):65–71 (Evaluation. IEEE Trans Power Syst PS-7(1):65–72 (1992)) CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammed H. Alsharif
    • 1
  • Rosdiadee Nordin
    • 2
    Email author
  • Mohammed Mudhafer Shakir
    • 2
  • Athirah Mohd Ramly
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Electronics and Information EngineeringSejong UniversitySeoulKorea
  2. 2.Centre of Advanced Electronic and Communication Engineering (PAKET), Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment,Universiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaBangiMalaysia

Personalised recommendations