Statistical Analysis of Partial Discharge, Lightning Impulse and BDV Characteristics of Nano SiO2-Corn Oil for HV Insulation Applications

  • R. Rajeswari
  • S. Chandrasekar
  • B. KarthikEmail author
Original Article


Recent concern towards environmental and fire safety of transformer operation has led to the development of natural ester based liquid insulation for power transformers. Recent advancements in nano technology confirm that the nano modified liquid insulation provides superior dielectric and thermal properties. Statistical analysis of the dielectric properties of nano modified liquid dielectrics is very important to qualify them for high voltage insulation applications. In this work, experimental works are carried out to understand the partial discharge (PD), lightning impulse (LI) and breakdown voltage (BDV) characteristics of corn oil filled with SiO2 nano fillers at different wt% concentration such as 0.01%, 0.05% and 0.1%. Needle/plane and rod/plane electrode geometry was used for creation of PD source. PD inception voltage, time domain and frequency domain characteristics of PD signals are evaluated. Weibull parameters of Phase Resolved PD pattern are evaluated. LI tests are performed at needle/plane and needle/sphere electrode geometry with standard 1.2/50 µs waveform at both positive and negative polarity. Weibull distribution analysis of LI breakdown voltage values are evaluated at different experimental conditions. BDV tests are carried out at different electrode gap distances such as 1, 2.5, 4 and 5 mm. Scale parameter and shape parameter of Weibull distribution of BDV values are computed. It is mostly observed that addition of nano SiO2 filler at lower wt% concentration in the range of 0.01–0.05% has substantial effect in enhancing the PD, LI and BDV characteristics of corn oil. Improvement in PD, LI and BDV characteristics gives confident that nano modified corn oil may be considered for outdoor transformer applications.


Transformer Nanofluid Corn oil Partial discharge BDV Lightning impulse 



Author (S.Chandrasekar) would like to sincerely thank the Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi for providing financial support through NanoMission scheme for carrying out the research activities on nanofluid insulation for power transformer applications.


  1. 1.
    Martin N, Lelekaki N, Guo W, Odarenko Y (2011) Further studies of a vegetable-oil-filled power transformer. IEEE Electr Insul Mag 27(5):6–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chandrasekar S, Montanari GC (2014) Analysis of partial discharge characteristics of natural esters as dielectric fluid for electric power apparatus applications. IEEE Trans Dielectr Electr Insul 21(3):1251–1259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rapp KJ, Corkran J, McShane CP (2009) Lightning impulse testing of natural ester fluid gaps and insulation interfaces. IEEE Trans Dielectr Electr Insul 16(6):1595–1603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Azmi K, Ahmad A, Kamarol M (2015) Study of dielectric properties of a potential RBD palm oil and RBD soyabean oil mixture as insulating liquid in transformer. J Electr Eng Technol 10(5):2105–2119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Von Thien Y, Azis N, Jasni J, Kadir MZAA, Yunus R, Ishak MT, Yaakub Z (2016) Evaluation on the lightning breakdown voltages of palm oil and coconut oil under non-uniform field at small gap distances. J Electr Eng Technol 11(1):184–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Liu R, Pettersson LAA, Auletta T, Hjortstam O (2011) Fundamental research on the application of nano dielectrics to transformers. In: IEEE international conference, pp 423–427Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dong M, Shen LP, Wang H, Wang HB, Miao J (2013) Investigation on the electrical conductivity of transformer oil-Based AlN nanofluid. J Nanomater. Hindawi Publishing Corporation, vol 2013, Article ID 842963, pp 1–7Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ramu TS, Keshavan BK, Balasubramanya Murthi KN (2012) Application of a class of nano fluids to improve the load ability of power transformers. In: IEEE 10th international conference on the properties and applications of dielectric materials, July 24–28, 2012, Bangalore, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Prasad D, Chandrasekar S (2017) Effect of nano SiO2 particles on partial discharge signal characteristics of FR3 transformer oil. J Adv Chem 13(5):1–10Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nagendran S, Chandrasekar S (2018) Investigations on partial discharge, dielectric and thermal characteristics of nano SiO2 modified sunflower oil for power transformer applications. J Electr Eng Technol 13(3):1337–1345Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Senthilkumar S, Karthik B, Chandrasekar S (2014) Investigations on PD characteristics of thermal aged palm and corn oil for power transformer insulation applications. J Electr Eng Technol 9(5):1660–1669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jin H, Andritsch T, Tsekmes IA, Kochetov R, Morshuis PHF, Smit JJ (2014) Properties of mineral oil based silica nanofluids. IEEE Trans Dielectr Electr Insul 21(3):1100–1108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Arvind Shriram RK, Chandrasekar S, Karthik B (2018) PD signal time-frequency map and PRPD pattern analysis of nano SiO2 modified palm oil for transformer insulation applications. J Electr Eng Technol 13(2):902–910Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Du Y, Lv Y, Li C, Chen M, Zhou J (2011) Effect of electron shallow trap on breakdown performance of transformer oil-based nano fluids. J Appl Phys 110:104104-104104-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sankarganesh R, Shivakumar R, Chandrasekar S (2017) Study on nano-modified mineral oil surface discharge partial discharge signal characteristics for high voltage transformer applications. J Comput Theor Nanosci 14:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pompili M, Mazzetti C, Bartnikas R (2009) Comparative PD pulse burst characteristics of transformer type natural and synthetic ester fluids and mineral oils. IEEE Tran Dielectr Electr Insul 16(6):1511–1518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Martin D, Wang ZD (2008) Statistical analysis of the AC breakdown voltages of ester based transformer oils. IEEE Trans Dielectr Electr Insul 15(4):1044–1050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Li Jian, Zhang Zhaotao, Zou Ping, Grzybowski Stanislaw (2012) Preparation of a vegetable oil-based nanofluid and investigation of its breakdown and dielectric properties. IEEE Electr Insul Mag 28(5):43–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wang Q, Rafiq M, Lv Y, Li C, Yi K (2016) Preparation of three types of transformer oil-based nanofluids and comparative study on the effect of nanoparticle concentrations on insulating property of transformer oil. J Nanotechnol 2016:1–6Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lewis TJ (2005) Interfaces: nanometric dielectrics. J Phys D Appl Phys 38(2):202–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Elansezhiyan A, Chandrasekar S (2017) Analysis of lightning impulse characteristics of nano SiO2 modified mineral oil for distribution transformer applications. J Comput Theor Nanosci 14:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EEESona College of TechnologySalemIndia
  2. 2.Anna University ChennaiChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations