Design, Modeling and Prototyping a Flat Switched Reluctance Machine for Direct-Drive Systems

  • Majid Asgar
  • Hossein TorkamanEmail author
  • Ebrahim Afjei
Original Article


In this paper, a flat-type 24 by 16 SRM, is considered for the application of direct-drive washing machine. Firstly, the structure is introduced and using the nonlinear equivalent circuit, the researchers present a design for the SRM. Then, using the three-dimensional finite element method, the electromagnetic characteristics of the proposed configuration are analyzed to evaluate the motor’s performance. The motor prototype is fabricated and tested experimentally to authenticate the theoretical and simulation analysis, and subsequently to prove the applicability. Finally, the performance of this proposed motor is compared with an SRM that has the same condition. Since a direct drive motor does not require a reduction gear, the drive system can be made simple without harmonic gears, and therefore it can be used in high-precision, more reliable, and low cost appliances.


Machine design Direct drives systems Switched reluctance machine 

List of symbols

\(\beta_{r} (\beta_{s} )\)

(Rotor/stator) pole arc

\(N_{r} (N_{s} )\)

Number of (rotor/stator) pole


Number of turns per coil


Number of coils per phase


Phase number


Fundamental switching frequency


Angular rotor speed


Average torque


Average power conversion

\(R_{sp} ,l_{sp} ,A_{sp}\)

Stator pole (reluctance/length/surface)

\(R_{sy,} l_{sy} ,\,A_{sy}\)

Stator yoke (reluctance/length/surface)

\(R_{rp} ,l_{rp} ,A_{rp}\)

Rotor pole (reluctance/length/surface)

\(R_{ry} ,l_{ry} ,A_{ry}\)

Rotor yoke (reluctance/length/surface)

\(R_{gap} ,l_{gap} ,A_{gap}\)

Rotor gap (reluctance/length/surface)


Unaligned inductance


Aligned inductance


Absolute magnetic permeability


Relative magnetic permeability


Stator outer diameter


Rotor bore diameter


Stack length

\(h_{r} (h_{s} )\)

(Rotor/stator) pole height

\(y_{r} (y_{s} )\)

(Rotor/stator) yoke length


Phase resistance per coil


  1. 1.
    Torkaman H, Afjei E (2011) Magnetostatic field analysis and diagnosis of mixed eccentricity fault in switched reluctance motor. Electromagnetics 31(5):368–383CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Asgar M, Afjei E (2016) Radial force reduction in a new flat-type double-stator switched reluctance motor. IEEE Trans Energy Convers 31(1):141–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Torkaman H, Afjei E (2009) Comprehensive magnetic field-based study on effects of static rotor eccentricity in switched reluctance motor parameters utilizing three-dimensional finite element. Electromagnetics 29(5):421–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Vandana R, Fernandes BG (2015) Design methodology for high-performance segmented rotor switched reluctance motors. IEEE Trans Energy Convers 30(1):11–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Torkaman H, Ghaheri A, Keyhani A (2018) Design of rotor excited axial flux-switching permanent magnet machine. IEEE Trans Energy Convers 33(3):1175–1183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Asgar M, Afjei E, Torkaman H (2015) A new strategy for design and analysis of a double-stator switched reluctance motor: electromagnetics, FEM, and experiment. IEEE Trans Magn 51(12):1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kabir MA, Husain I (2016) Design of mutually coupled switched reluctance motors (MCSRMs) for extended speed applications using 3-phase standard inverters. IEEE Trans Energy Convers 31(2):436–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Afjei E, Siadatan A, Torkaman H (2015) Magnetic modeling, prototyping, and comparative study of a quintuple-set switched reluctance motor. IEEE Trans Magn 51(8):1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chuang T-S (2010) Acoustic noise reduction of a 6/4 SRM drive based on third harmonic real power cancellation and mutual coupling flux enhancement. Energy Convers Manag 51(3):546–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pan JF, Meng FJ, Cheung NC (2014) Core loss analysis for the planar switched reluctance motor. IEEE Trans Magn 50(2):813–816CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nezamabadi MM, Afjei E, Torkaman H (2016) Design, dynamic electromagnetic analysis, FEM, and fabrication of a new switched-reluctance motor with hybrid motion. IEEE Trans Magn 52(4):1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Torkaman H, Afjei E, Toulabi MS (2012) New double-layer-per-phase isolated switched reluctance motor: concept, numerical analysis, and experimental confirmation. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 59(2):830–838CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Da-Woon C, Sang-In B, Yun-Hyun C (2014) A study on the maximum power control method of switched reluctance generator for wind turbine. IEEE Trans Magn 50(1):1–4Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Daghigh A, Javadi H, Torkaman H (2016) Design optimization of direct-coupled ironless axial flux permanent magnet synchronous wind generator with low cost and high annual energy yield. IEEE Trans Magn 52(9):1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Debiprasad P, Ramanarayanan V (2007) Mutual coupling and its effect on steady-state performance and position estimation of even and odd number phase switched reluctance motor drive. IEEE Trans Magn 43(8):3445–3456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Balazovic P, Filka R (2008) Sensorless PMSM control for H-axis washing machine drive. In: 39th annual IEEE power electronics specialists conference, PESC, Rhodes, Greece, pp 4237–4242Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bojoi R, He B, Rosa F, Pegoraro F (2011) Sensorless direct flux and torque control for direct drive washing machine applications. In: 3rd annual IEEE energy conversion congress and exposition (ECCE), Raleigh, North Carolina, pp 347–354Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Krishnan R, Arumugan R, Lindsay JF (1988) Design procedure for switched-reluctance motors. IEEE Trans Ind Appl 24(3):456–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Anwar MN, Husain I, Radun A (2001) A comprehensive design methodology for switched reluctance machines. IEEE Trans Ind Appl 36(6):1684–1692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Krishnan R (2001) Switched reluctance motor drives: modeling, simulation, analysis, design, and applications. CRC Press, Boca RatonCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Electrical EngineeringShahid Beheshti University, G.C.TehranIran
  2. 2.Enghelab-e Eslami Technical CollegeTechnical and Vocational UniversityTehranIran

Personalised recommendations