Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology

, Volume 14, Issue 1, pp 97–110 | Cite as

Robustness Analysis of LFC for Multi Area Power System integrated with SMES–TCPS by Artificial Intelligent Technique

  • Mandeep Sharma
  • Raj Kumar Bansal
  • Surya PrakashEmail author
Original Article


Load frequency control (LFC) plays an essential role in a power system (PS) to sustain the grid frequency for the period of sudden load demand variations. Hence, this manuscript deals with the execution of adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) approach for LFC of three-area unequal thermal power system. The ANFIS controller proposed in the manuscript combines the advantages of Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC) as well as rapid response and flexible nature of artificial neural network. To improve the LFC performance, offered controller is simulated with superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) units and Thyristor controlled phase shifter (TCPS) individually and in combination. The performance of proposed ANFIS controller is superior and robust compared to existing control schemes and improved performance is observed particularly in the presence of SMES–TCPS combination. The realization of SMES & TCPS combination curtail frequency and tie power variation quickly after an unexpected load disturbance. To validate the usefulness of the proposed controller, integral time weighted absolute error (ITAE) and integral square error (ISE) performance error indices are used. Robustness of offered controller is demonstrated against wide variation in the system parameters.


Adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system Fuzzy logic Load frequency control Superconducting magnetic energy storage Three area unequal thermal power system Thyristor controlled phase shifters 

List of symbols


Three area unequal thermal power system


Area control error


Load demand variation


Change in frequency


Change in tie-line power


Subscript referring to area (i = 1, 2, 3)


Mechanical power input to power system


Variations in load demand


Changes in governor power


Tie line power deviation in ith area


Equivalent inertia constant of area i


Synchronizing coefficient for tie-line


Frequency deviations in jth control area


Droop characteristics of area i


Frequency bias constant of area i


Equivalent damping constant of area i


Time constant of governor for area i


Time constant of turbine for area i


Participation factor between ith and jth areas



This work is supported by Electrical and Instrumentation Engineering Department, Thapar University, Patiala, Punjab and Electrical Engineering Department, Guru Kashi University, Bathinda, Punjab.


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Copyright information

© The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mandeep Sharma
    • 1
  • Raj Kumar Bansal
    • 1
  • Surya Prakash
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Electrical EngineeringGuru Kashi UniversityBathindaIndia
  2. 2.Electrical and Instrumentation Engineering DepartmentThapar Institute of Engineering and Technology (Deemed to be University)PatialaIndia

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