Effect of Surfactant on Breakdown Strength Performance of Transformer Oil-Based Nanofluids

  • Muhammad Faris Baharuddin
  • Izzah Hazirah Zakaria
  • Mohd Hafizi Ahmad
  • Aulia
  • Zainuddin NawawiEmail author
  • Muhammad Abu Bakar Sidik
  • Muhammad Irfan Jambak
Original Article


Many approaches to improve the transformer oil characteristics have been made by adding nanofillers into the liquids, but it has caused the existence of sedimentation and agglomeration thereby resulting in incompatibility of transformer oil. In view of foregoing, this paper aims to study the impact of cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant added with the nanofiller in improving the compatibility and agglomeration issues towards improvement of breakdown voltage (BDV) characteristics of oil nanofluids. This study was carried out by implementing three different percentages of silica (SiO2) and alumina (Al2O3) nanofillers along with CTAB as surfactant into the mineral oil. The breakdown voltage test was carried out accordance to IEC 60156 standard. The results show that the inclusion of 0.1 wt% SiO2 and 0.1 wt% Al2O3 nanoparticles into mineral oil have improved the BDV. Meanwhile, Al2O3 nanofluids with 0.075 wt% CTAB had good impact on BDV but not on SiO2. This case has reverse behavior with the sedimentation which 0.1 wt% CTAB in SiO2 nanofluids has a good response but not the whole in Al2O3 nanofluids. This could be mainly due to the limitation stability of the nanofluids.


Transformer oil Nanofluids Breakdown voltage Surfactant Sedimentation 



This work was supported by Universiti Teknologi Malaysia and Universitas Sriwijaya, Indonesia through research Grants with vot. numbers 04G81, 4B278, 4B279, 4B340, 4B342, and 13H98.


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Copyright information

© The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Faris Baharuddin
    • 1
  • Izzah Hazirah Zakaria
    • 1
  • Mohd Hafizi Ahmad
    • 1
  • Aulia
    • 2
  • Zainuddin Nawawi
    • 3
    Email author
  • Muhammad Abu Bakar Sidik
    • 3
  • Muhammad Irfan Jambak
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of High Voltage and High Current, School of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringUniversiti Teknologi MalaysiaJohor BahruMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringUniversitas AndalasPadangIndonesia
  3. 3.Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringUniversitas SriwijayaPalembangIndonesia

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