Optimal Dispatch Model for Demand Response Aggregators

  • Victor J. Gutierrez-MartinezEmail author
  • Enrique A. Zamora-Cardenas
  • Alejandro Pizano-Martinez
  • Jose M. Lozano-Garcia
  • Miguel A. Gomez-Martinez
Original Article



The necessity to seamlessly integrate emerging smart grid (SG) technologies to the electric distribution system has encouraged the development of demand-side management (DSM) and Demand Response (DR) programs. In particular, DR aggregators will play an important role in the new operational paradigm of SG.


To propose a new three-phase optimal dispatch model for multiple DR aggregators. The model can consider several DR service providers by means of the explicit inclusion of their characteristics, in the form of cost functions and capacity, in an optimal dispatch model for DR support at the distribution system level. Hence, this proposal helps to eliminate any possible uncertainty about the provision of DR services by improving the traditional hierarchical scheme adopted based on prices issued by the independent system operator.


By means of the unbalanced distribution system modeling, DR involvement of single- and three-phase consumers is considered avoiding aggravating the asymmetric balancing between phases, as opposed to traditional positive-sequence DR approaches. The model is implemented and solved combining the two state-of-the-art computational tools, Matlab® and OpenDSS. The former is used to solve the optimization problem, whereas the latter is used to perform numerical simulations of three-phase unbalanced power flow; both tools allow a straightforward model implementation resulting in a tool easily modified and updated.


The effectiveness of the proposed approach is numerically demonstrated using the IEEE 13- and 123-node test feeders, in which undesirable operating scenarios are corrected by the implementation of the optimal dispatch of DR resources in very short computational times.


Based on the results, it is shown how the ISO is capable to request DR considering several aggregators competing at the distribution system level. Finally, the loss reduction has been included in the objective function, showing that the proposal optimally dispatches the DR aggregators to conveniently minimize the ISO’s operational costs.


Smart grids Demand side management Demand response Optimal dispatch Aggregators 



Publication charges were supported by the University of Guanajuato PFCE 2018.


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Copyright information

© The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Victor J. Gutierrez-Martinez
    • 1
    Email author
  • Enrique A. Zamora-Cardenas
    • 1
  • Alejandro Pizano-Martinez
    • 1
  • Jose M. Lozano-Garcia
    • 1
  • Miguel A. Gomez-Martinez
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electrical EngineeringUniversity of GuanajuatoSalamancaMéxico

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