One- and two-dimensional carbon nanomaterials as adsorbents of cationic and anionic dyes from aqueous solutions
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One- and two-dimensional carbon nanomaterials were tested as adsorbents for the elimination of two anionic dyes, reactive red 2 and methyl orange, and the cationic dye methylene blue from aqueous solutions under the same conditions. Carbon nanomaterials performed well in the removal of dyes. Surface oxygenated groups in the nanomaterials improved the cationic dyes’ adsorption, but not the adsorption of the anionic dye. The interactions between nanomaterials and dyes were verified by infrared and Raman spectroscopy. The pseudo-second order kinetic model was better fitted to the kinetic experimental data than the Elovich and pseudo-first order models. The equilibrium adsorption data were best fitted by the Langmuir model. The dimensions and morphology of the carbon nanomaterials play an important role in the adsorption of the three dyes. The main mechanism of adsorption of anionic dyes is by the interactions of the aromatic rings of the dye structures and π delocalized electrons on carbon nanostructures; the adsorption of cationic dye is mainly due to electrostatic interactions.
KeywordsAdsorption Carbon nanomaterials Dye removal Pseudo second order Langmuir model
We thank to Dr. Genoveva Hernández Padrón for her assistance in Raman spectroscopy; and Centro de Geociencias-Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (CG-UNAM), Dr. Arturo Gómez Tuena and Mr. Manuel Albarrán Murillo for their assistance in the graphite milling. Additionally, we acknowledge the partial financial support of the Laboratorio Nacional de Materiales Grafénicos, Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACyT) Project 250848 and the support from Tecnológico Nacional de México, Project IT16B291.
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