Occurrence, quantification, pulse types, and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella sp. isolated from chicken meat in the state of Paraná, Brazil
The aim of this work was to verify the occurrence, quantification, pulse types, and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Salmonella sp. isolated from chicken meat produced and marketed in the state of Paraná, considered to be the state with the highest production of poultry meat in Brazil. Ninety-five of 300 (31.5%) frozen cuts of chicken were found to contain Salmonella sp., and 98 different isolates of Salmonella sp. were cultured from the positive samples. Quantification showed low Salmonella sp. loading, ranging from 0.12 to 6.4 MPN/g. The antimicrobial resistance test was performed against 16 agents from 6 different classes. All isolates were sensitive to meropenem, imipenem, chloramphenicol, and amikacin. The highest resistance rates were observed for nalidixic acid (95%), tetracycline (94%), doxycycline (94%), ampicillin (87%), amoxicillin with clavulanic acid (84%), ceftriaxone (79%), and ciprofloxacin (76%). A total of 84 (85.7%) of the isolates were identified with a multidrug resistant profile, 13 of which were found to have encoding genes extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL), especially blaCTX-M-2 e blaTEM-1. The major serovars identified were S. Typhimurium (43%) and S. Heidelberg (39%). The third most isolated serovar was S. Ndolo (6%), without previous reports of its presence in poultry meat in Brazil. Molecular characterization of S. Typhimurium and S. Heidelberg isolates by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) showed a clonal relationship between all isolates of the same serovar (genetic similarity greater than 80%). Isolates of S. Typhimurium and S. Heidelberg with 100% similarity were found in up to five different geographic regions of the state, showing the potential for the spread of this pathogen in the Paraná poultry chain. Epidemiological surveys like this are important to understand the dynamics of dissemination and to monitor the prevalence of pathogens in the final products of poultry chains. In addition, to know the resistance profile of strains of Salmonella sp. present in food that contributes to the adoption of faster and more effective therapeutic measures, when necessary.
KeywordsblaCTX-M-2 blaTEM-1 PFGE Sequencing Salmonella Ndolo mMPN
This study was funded in part by the Coordination of Superior Level Staff Improvement—Brazil (CAPES)—Finance Code 001, National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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