Disseminated melanized fungal infection due to Cladosporium halotolerans in a dog coinfected with canine adenovirus-1 and canine parvovirus-2
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This report presents the pathologic findings associated with disseminated infection due to Cladosporium halotolerans in a dog that was simultaneously infected with canine adenovirus-1 (CAdV-1) and canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2). A 12-year-old, mixed breed dog, with a clinical history of neurological manifestations was submitted for routine autopsy due to poor prognosis. The principal pathologic findings were mycotic necrotizing nephritis, hepatitis, and splenitis with embolic dissemination to the brain resulting in mycotic necrotizing meningoencephalitis, ventriculitis, choroid plexitis, and obstructive hydrocephalus associated with intralesional and intravascular septate pigmented fungi. PCR and sequencing of the ITS region of fungi revealed that the intralesional fungal organisms had 82% nucleotide identity with members of the Cladosporium sphaerospermum complex of organisms. However, a PCR assay and sequencing of the beta tubulin gene confirmed that the organism identified in this dog had 100% nucleotide sequence identity with C. halotolerans. Using immunohistochemistry, intralesional antigens of CAdV-1 were identified within the epithelial cells of the liver and lungs; there was positive immunolabeling for CPV-2 antigens in degenerated cardiomyocytes. These findings confirmed the active participation of C. halotolerans in the development of disseminated cladosporiosis in this dog and represent a rare occurrence of concomitant infection with CAdV-1 and CPV-2.
KeywordsChoroid plexitis Cladosporiosis Dematiaceous fungi Diagnostic pathology Dog Pleocytosis Thromboembolism Ventriculitis
Selwyn A. Headley and Amauri A. Alfieri are recipients of the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq; Brazil) fellowships and grants. The authors thank the owner of this dog for permission to use this animal during this report and Dr. Kerlei Cristina Medici for the realization of the beta-tubulin PCR assay.
Compliance with ethical standards
All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
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