Ability of endophytic fungi associated with Withania somnifera L. to control Fusarium Crown and Root Rot and to promote growth in tomato
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Fusarium crown and root rot (FCRR), caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL), is a soilborne tomato disease of increased importance worldwide. In this study, Withania somnifera was used as a potential source of biological control and growth-promoting agents. Seven fungal isolates naturally associated with W. somnifera were able to colonize tomato seedlings. They were applied as conidial suspensions or a cell-free culture filtrate. All isolates enhanced treated tomato growth parameters by 21.5–90.3% over FORL-free control and by 27.6–93.5% over pathogen-inoculated control. All tested isolates significantly decreased by 28.5–86.4% disease severity over FORL-inoculated control. The highest disease suppression, by 86.4–92.8% over control and by 81.3–88.8% over hymexazol-treated control, was achieved by the I6 isolate. FORL radial growth was suppressed by 58.5–82.3% versus control when dual cultured with tested isolates and by 61.8–83.2% using their cell-free culture filtrates. The most active agent was identified as Fusarium sp. I6 (MG835371), which displayed chitinolytic, proteolytic, and amylase activities. This has been the first report on the potential use of fungi naturally associated with W. somnifera for FCRR suppression and for tomato growth promotion. Further investigations are required in regard to mechanisms of action involved in disease suppression and plant growth promotion.
KeywordsAntifungal activity Associated fungi Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici W. somnifera Tomato growth
This work was funded by the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research of Tunisia through the funding allocated to the research unit UR13AGR09-Integrated Horticultural Production in the Tunisian Centre-East and by IRESA through the funding attributed to the multidisciplinary and multi-institutional project CleProD.
Compliance with ethical standards
All the experiments undertaken in this study comply with the current law of the country where they were performed.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
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