Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Net Nitrogen Mineralisation in Maize-Cover Crop Rotations in Mediterranean Central Chile

Abstract

The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the maize-cover crop rotation (Zm-cc) in the soil net nitrogen mineralisation (NNM) by measuring in situ NNM incubation in the upper soil (0–25 cm) during spring-summer (October–March) and autumn-winter (April–September) seasons and compared with other rotation in Mediterranean Central Chile. The study was carried out at 5 experimental fields (only irrigated in spring-summer period), where four common soil use or maize-based rotations were evaluated: permanent fallow (F-F); maize-fallow (Zm-F); maize-cover crop (Zm-cc); and permanent cover crops (cc-cc). In these fields were carried out NNM in situ determinations in F-F (n = 18), Zm-F (n = 31), Zm-cc (n = 43), and cc-cc (n = 51) combinations (totalise n = 143), which were collected during spring-summer and autumn-winter in different periods between 2011 and 2018. During the spring-summer period, it was found that the NNM was highest in the Zm-cc rotations with a mean value of 36 kg N ha−1, whereas the lowest NNM values were in F-F soil use with and mean of 6 kg N ha−1. In contrast, during autumn-winter season, the NNM was highest in the F-F soil use with a mean of 34 kg N ha−1, while the lowest NNM values were found in Zm-cc rotation with a mean of − 38 kg N ha−1. During the spring-summer period, the Zm-cc rotation had the highest NNM values because cc increased the soil organic matter (SOM) content for microbial activity, whereas in autumn-winter, the Zm-cc rotation had the lowest NNM values because the cc added fresh SOM that increased N immobilisation process.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1

References

  1. Aka Sagliker H, Cenkseven S, Kizildag N, Kocak B, Ozdeniz E, Ozbey BG, Bölükbası A, Kurt L (2018) Is parent material an important factor in soil carbon and nitrogen mineralization? Eur J Soil Biol 89:45–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejsobi.2018.11.002

  2. Barrett JE, Burke IC (2000) Potential nitrogen immobilization in grassland soils across a soil organic matter gradient. Soil Biol Biochem 32:1707–1716

  3. Beck HE, Zimmermann NE, McVicar TR, Vergopolan N, Berg A, Wood EF (2018) Present and future Köppen-Geiger climate classification maps at 1-km resolution. Sci Data 5:180214. https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2018.214

  4. Berenguer P, Santiveri F, Boixadera J, Lloveras J (2009) Nitrogen fertilisation of irrigated maize under Mediterranean conditions. Eur J Agron 30:163–171

  5. Bozkurt D, Rojas M, Boisier JP, Valdivieso J (2018) Projected hydroclimate changes over Andean basins in Central Chile from downscaled CMIP5 models under the low and high emission scenarios. Clim Chang 150:131–147. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-018-2246-7

  6. Casanova M, Seguel O, Salazar O, Luzio W (2013) Soils of Chile. Soils of the world soils series. Springer Science+Business Media, Berlin. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-5949-7

  7. Chen B, Liu E, Tian Q, Yan C, Zhang Y (2014) Soil nitrogen dynamics and crop residues. A review. Agron Sustain Dev 34:429–442. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13593-014-0207-8

  8. Clivot H, Mary B, Valé M, Cohan J, Champolivier L, Piraux F, Laurent F, Justes E (2017) Quantifying in situ and modeling net nitrogen mineralization from soil organic matter in arable cropping systems. Soil Biol Biochem 111:44–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2017.03.010

  9. Córdova C, Barrera JA, Magna C (2018) Spatial variation of nitrogen mineralization as a guide for variable application of nitrogen fertilizer to cereal crops. Nutr Cycl Agroecosys 110:83–88. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10705-017-9886-2

  10. Corradini F, Nájera F, Casanova M, Tapia Y, Singh R, Salazar O (2015) Effects of maize cultivation on nitrogen and phosphorus loadings to drainage channels in Central Chile. Environ Monit Assess 187:697–617. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-015-4919-2

  11. Davidson EA, Janssens IA (2006) Temperature sensitivity of soil carbon decomposition and feedbacks to climate change. Nature 440:165–173. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04514

  12. Fernández FG, Fabrizzi KP, Naeve SL (2017) Corn and soybean’s season-long in-situ nitrogen mineralization in drained and undrained soils. Nut Cycl Agroecosys 107:33–47. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10705-016-9810-1

  13. Fu W, Wang X, Wei X (2019) No response of soil N mineralization to experimental warming in a northern middle-high latitude agro-ecosystem. Sci Total Environ 659:240–248. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.12.315

  14. Fuentes I, Casanova M, Seguel O, Nájera F, Salazar O (2014) Morpho-physical pedotransfer functions for groundwater pollution by nitrate leaching in Central Chile. Chil J Agric Res 74:340–348. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-58392014000300013

  15. Gabriel JL, Quemada M (2011) Replacing bare fallow with cover crops in a maize cropping system: yield, N uptake and fertiliser fate. Eur J Agron 34:133–143. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2010.11.006

  16. Gabriel JL, Muñoz-Carpena R, Quemada M (2012) The role of cover crops in irrigated systems: water balance, nitrate leaching and soil mineral nitrogen accumulation. Agric Ecosyst Environ 115:50–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2010.11.006

  17. Guntinas ME, Leiros MC, Trasar-Cepeda C, Gil-Sotres F (2012) Effects of moisture and temperature on net soil nitrogen mineralization: a laboratory study. Eur J Soil Biol 48:73–80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejsobi.2011.07.015

  18. Hu W, Tian S, Di Q, Liu J, Zhang S (2018) Nitrogen mineralization simulation dynamic in tobacco soil. J Soil Sc Plant Nut 18(2):448–465. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-95162018005001401

  19. Jarvis SC, Stockdale EA, Shepherd MA, Powlson DS (1996) Nitrogen mineralization in temperate agricultural soils: processes and measurement. Adv Agron 57:187–235. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2113(08)60925-6

  20. Jia J, Bai J, Gao H, Wen X, Zhang G, Cui B, Liu X (2017) In situ soil net nitrogen mineralization in coastal salt marshes (Suaeda salsa) with different flooding periods in a Chinese estuary. Ecol Indic 73:559–565. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2016.10.012

  21. Karmakar R, Das I, Dutta D, Rakshit A (2016) Potential effects of climate change on soil properties: a review. Sci Int 4(2):51–73. https://doi.org/10.3923/sciintl.2016.51.73

  22. Kolberg RL, Rouppet B, Westfall DG, Peterson GA (1997) Evaluation of an in situ net soil nitrogen mineralization in dryland agroecosystems. Soil Sci Soc Am J 61:504–508. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1997.03615995006100020019x

  23. Kramberger B, Gselman A, Janzekovic M, Kaligaric M, Bracko B (2009) Effects of cover crops on soil mineral nitrogen and on the yield and nitrogen content of maize. Eur J Agron 31(2):103–109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2009.05.006

  24. Liu Y, He N, Wen X, Yu G, Gao Y, Jia Y (2016) Patterns and regulating mechanisms of soil nitrogen mineralization and temperature sensitivity in Chinese terrestrial ecosystems. Agric Ecosyst Environ 215:40–46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2015.09.012

  25. Luxhøi J, Bruun S, Stenberg B, Breland TA, Jensen LS (2006) Prediction of gross and net N mineralization-immobilization-turnover from respiration. Soil Sci Soc Am J 70:1121–1128. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2005.0133

  26. Martínez JM, Galantini JA, Duval ME (2018) Contribution of nitrogen mineralization indices, labile organic matter and soil properties in predicting nitrogen mineralization. J Soil Sci Plant Nutr 18:73–89. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-95162018005000401

  27. Marzi M, Shahbazi K, Kharazi N, Rezaei M (2020) The influence of organic amendment source on carbon and nitrogen mineralization in different soils. J Soil Sci Plant Nutr 20:177–191. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42729-019-00116-w

  28. Nájera F, Tapia Y, Baginsky C, Figueroa V, Cabeza R, Salazar O (2015) Evaluation of soil fertility and fertilisation practices for irrigated maize (Zea mays L.) under Mediterranean conditions in Central Chile. J Soil Sci Plant Nutr 15:84–97. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-95162015005000008

  29. Nendel C, Melzer D, Thorburn P (2019) The nitrogen nutrition potential of arable soils. Sci Rep 9:5851. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42274-y

  30. Partey ST, Preziosi RF, Robson GD (2014) Improving maize residue use in soil fertility restoration by mixing with residues of low C-to-N ratio: effects on C and N mineralization and soil microbial biomass. J Soil Sci Plant Nutr 14:518–531. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-95162014005000041

  31. Pinheiro J, Bates D (2000) Mixed-effects model in S and S-plus. Springer-Verlag, New York

  32. Qian B, Gregorich EG, Gameda S, Hopkins DW, Wang XL (2011) Observed soil temperature trends associated with climate change in Canada. J Geophys Res Atmos 116:D02106. https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JD015012

  33. Quemada M, Gabriel JL (2016) Approaches for increasing nitrogen and water use efficiency simultaneously. Glob Food Sec 9:29–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2016.05.004

  34. R Core Team (2019) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna https://www.R-project.org/

  35. Robertson GP, Groffman PM (2007) Nitrogen transformations. In: Paul EA (ed) Soil microbiology, ecology and biochemistry, 3rd edn. Academic Press, Boston, pp 341–364

  36. Sadzawka A, Grez R, Carrasco MA, Mora M (2006) Métodos recomendados para suelos chilenos (methods recommended for Chilean soils). Comisión Nacional de Normalización y Acreditación. Sociedad Chilena de la Ciencia del Suelo, Santiago (in Spanish)

  37. Salazar O, Vargas J, Nájera F, Seguel O, Casanova M (2014) Monitoring of nitrate leaching during flush flooding events in a coarse-textured flood plain soil. Agric Water Manag 146:218–227. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2014.08.014

  38. Salazar O, Rojas C, Avendaño F, Realini P, Nájera F, Tapia Y (2015) Inorganic nitrogen losses from irrigated maize fields with narrow buffer strips. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 102:359–370. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10705-015-9707-4

  39. Salazar O, Nájera F, Tapia W, Casanova M (2017) Evaluation of the DAISY model for predicting nitrogen leaching in coarse-textured soils cropped with maize in the Mediterranean zone of Chile. Agric Water Manag 182:77–86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2016.12.005

  40. Salazar O, Fuentes I, Seguel O, Nájera F, Casanova M (2018) Assessment of nitrogen and phosphorus pathways at the profile of over-fertilised alluvial soils. Implications for best management practices. Water Air Soil Pollut 229:223. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-018-3854-6

  41. Salazar O, Balboa L, Peralta K, Rossi M, Casanova M, Tapia Y, Singh R, Quemada M (2019) Effect of cover crops on leaching of dissolved organic nitrogen and carbon in a maize-cover crop rotation in Mediterranean Central Chile. Agric Water Manag 212:399–406. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2018.07.031

  42. Salmerón M, Isla R, Cavero J (2011) Effect of winter cover crop species and planting methods on maize yield and N availability under irrigated Mediterranean conditions. Field Crop Res 123:89–99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2011.05.006

  43. Sandoval M, Dörner J, Seguel O, Cuevas J, Rivera D (2012) Métodos de análisis físicos de suelos (methods of physical soil analyses). Universidad de Concepción, Publicaciones Departamento de Suelos y Recursos Naturales N° 5, Chillán (in Spanish)

  44. Simeonova T, Stoicheva D, Koleva V, Sokołowska Z, Hajnos M (2017) Effect of long-term fertilizer application in maize crop growing on chemical element leaching in Fluvisol. Int Agrophys 31:243–249. https://doi.org/10.1515/intag-2016-0052

  45. Sobota DJ, Compton JE, McCrackin ML, Singh S (2015) Cost of reactive nitrogen release from human activities to the environment in the United States. Environ Res Lett 10(2):025006. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/10/2/025006

  46. SSS (2014) Keys to soil taxonomy, 12th edition. Soil Survey Staff. United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. Washington DC, USA

  47. Steffen W, Richardson K, Rockström J, Cornell SE, Fetzer I, Bennett EM, Biggs R, Carpenter SR, de Vries W, de Wit CA, Folke C, Gerten D, Heinke J, Mace GM, Persson LM, Ramanathan V, Reyers B, Sörlin S (2015) Planetary boundaries: guiding human development on a changing planet. Science 347(6223):1259855. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1259855

  48. Williams C (2017) Climate change in Chile: an analysis of state-of-the-art observations, satellite-derived estimates and climate model simulations. J Earth Sci Clim Change 8(5):400. https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7617.1000400

  49. Zhang X, Wang Q, Xu J, Gilliam FS, Tremblay N, Li C (2015) In situ nitrogen mineralization, nitrification, and ammonia volatilization in maize field fertilized with urea in Huanghuaihai Region of Northern China. PLoS One 10(1):e0115649. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115649

  50. Zou C, Pearce RC, Grove JH, Coyne MS (2017) Laboratory vs. in situ resin-core methods to estimate net nitrogen mineralization for comparison of rotation and tillage practices. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 180:294–301. https://doi.org/10.1002/jpln.201600571

  51. Zou C, Grove JH, Pearce RC, Coyne MS, Ren K (2019) What happens to in situ net soil nitrogen mineralization when nitrogen fertility changes? J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 182:296–306. https://doi.org/10.1002/jpln.201800551

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors thank several students from the Soil and Water Management Master Programme at the University of Chile.

Funding

This study was partially financed by CONICYT Project No. 1150572 (Regular FONDECYT) and the Department of Engineering and Soil (University of Chile).

Author information

Correspondence to Osvaldo Salazar.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Salazar, O., Casanova, M., Nájera, F. et al. Net Nitrogen Mineralisation in Maize-Cover Crop Rotations in Mediterranean Central Chile. J Soil Sci Plant Nutr (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42729-020-00191-4

Download citation

Keywords

  • Climate change
  • Nitrogen dynamics
  • N immobilisation
  • Soil temperature