The impact of digestate and fresh animal manure (with and without ash) on soil fertility, carrot productivity, and metal uptake from soil to carrot was studied. Ash might contain high concentrations of metals. Since the impact of fiber and whole digestate with ash, on plant growth and metal uptake, remains unclear, their suitability as alternatives to inorganic fertilizer was assessed. Soil treatments included animal manure (AM), whole digestate (WD), fiber digestate (FD), animal manure with ash (AM+A), whole digestate with ash (WD+A), fiber digestate with ash (FD+A), inorganic fertilizer (positive control), and unamended (negative control). Impacts on soil properties were assessed initially and after a 6-week incubation, with plant morphometry and elemental composition, including nutrient and potential toxic element (PTE) uptake, determined. Performance of WD on carrot productivity was better than FD and AM. There was an overall positive effect of wood ash on the soil resulting in higher concentrations of all major elements. However, ash treatments had lower uptake and transfer factors of the metals while IF treatment had the highest transfer factors for Cr (16.3) and Ni (12.2). Also, based on carrot productivity, addition of wood ash mainly improved the performance of FD, having a slightly negative effect on AM. Despite the higher concentrations of trace metals in wood ash, it did not significantly increase the uptake of PTEs. The digestates and wood ash mixture had a positive effect on bioavailability of heavy metals in carrot plant and therefore can be a sustainable alternative amendment for root crops.
Ash Biofertilizer Fiber digestate Metals Uptake
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
I am grateful to Schlumberger Foundation of the Faculty for the future program for funding this research and NERC Resource Recovery from Waste research group for the use of their materials and equipment.
This study was funded by Schlumberger Foundation of the Faculty for the future program.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Agbede TM, Adekiya AO, Eifediyi EK (2017) Impact of poultry manure and NPK fertilizer on soil physical properties and growth and yield of carrot. J Hortic Res 25(1):81–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alburquerque JA, delaFuente C, Campoym M, Carrasco L, Nájera I, Baixauli C, Caravaca F, Roldán A, Cegarra J, Bernal MP (2012b) Agricultural use of digestate for horticultural crop production and improvement of soil properties. E J Agro 43:119–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alexander PD, Alloway BJ, Dourado AM (2006) Genotypic variations in the accumulation of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn exhibited by six commonly grown vegetables. Environ Pollut 144:736–745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barbosa DBP, Nabel M, Jablonowski ND (2014) Biogas-digestate as nutrient source for biomass production of Sida hermaphrodita, L and L. Energy Procedia 59:120–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bernal MP, Clemente R, Walker DJ (2007) The role of organic amendments in the bioremediation of heavy metal-polluted soils. In: Gore RW (ed) Environmental research at the leading edge. Nova Science Publishers, New York, pp 1–57Google Scholar
Bougnom BP, Niederkofler C, Knapp BA, Stimpfl E, Insam H (2012) Residues from renewable energy production: their value for fertilizing pastures. Biomass Bioenergy 39:290–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cui YJ, Zhui YG, Zhai RH, Chen DY, Hung YZ, Qui Y, Liang JZ (2004) Transfer of metals from soil to vegetable in an area near the smelter in Nanning, China. Environ Int 30(6):785–791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Domańska J, Filipek T (2011) Zinc accumulation in cooks foot in dependence on kind of soil pH, and Cd or Pb soil contamination. Environ Nat Resour 48:67–73Google Scholar
Eissa MA, Negim OE (2018) Heavy metals uptake and translocation by lettuce and spinach grown on a metal-contaminated soil. J Soil Sci Plant Nutr 18(4):1097–1107Google Scholar
Fernández-Delgado Juárez M, Waldhuber S, Knapp A, Partl C, Gómez-Brandón M, Insam H (2013) Wood ash effects on chemical and microbiological properties of digestate- and manure-amended soils. Biol Fertil Soils 49:575–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gupta N, Yadav KK, Kumar V, Kumar S, Chadd RP, Kumar A (2019) Trace elements in soil-vegetables interface: translocation, bioaccumulation, toxicity and amelioration - a review. Sci Total Environ 651(Part 2, (15)):2927–2942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
György S, Krisztina C (2009) Examination of the heavy metal uptake of carrot (Daucus Carota) in different soil types. AGD Landsc Environ 3(2):56–70Google Scholar
Mapanda F, Mangwayana EN, Nyamangara J, Giller KE (2007) Uptake of heavy metals by vegetables irrigated using wastewater and the subsequent risks in Harare, Zimbabwe. Phys Chem Earth 32:1399–1405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mehedi T, Siddique MA, Shahid SB (2012) Effects of urea and cowdung on growth and yield of carrot. J Bangladesh Agril Univ 10(1):9–13 ISSN 1810-3030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moniruzzaman M, Akand MH, Hossain MI, Sarkar MD, Ullah A (2013) Effect of nitrogen on the growth and yield of carrot (Daucus carota L.). Agriculturists 11(1):76–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Odlare M, Pell M (2009) Effect of wood fly ash and compost on nitrification and denitrification in agricultural soil. Appl Energy 86:74–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Riding MJ, Herbert BMJ, Ricketts L, Dodd I, Ostle N, Semple KT (2015) Harmonising conflicts between science, regulation, perception and environmental impact: the case of soil conditioners from bioenergy. Environ Int 75:52–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ronen E (2007) Micro-Elements in Agriculture. Practical Hydroponics and Green-houses. Int J of Agric and Crop Sci 3:39–48.Google Scholar
Rousk J, Brookes PC, Bååth E (2009) Contrasting soil pH effects on fungal and bacterial growth suggest functional redundancy in carbon mineralization. Appl Environ Microbiol 75:1589–1596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schilling G, Kerschberger M, Kummer KF, Peschke H (2000) Verhalten der einzelnen Nährelemente und Symptome bei Ernährungs zuständen. In: Schilling G (ed) Pflanzenernährung und Düngung. Ulmer, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
Singh DP, Beloy J, McInerney JK, Day L (2012) Impact of boron, calcium and genetic factors on vitamin C, carotenoids, phenolic acids, anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity of carrots (Daucuscarota L.). Food Chem 132:1161–1170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Southgate D (2009) Population growth, increases in agricultural production and trends in food prices. Electron J Sus Dev 1(3):29–35Google Scholar
Szabó G, Czellér K (2009) Examination of the heavy metal uptake of carrot (Daucus Carota) in different soil types. Agd Landsc Environ 3(2):56–70Google Scholar
Tiwary A, Williams ID, Pant DC, Kishore VVN (2015) Assessment and mitigation of the environmental burdens to air from land applied food-based digestate. Environ Pollut 203:262–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar