Biochemical and Physiological Responses of Three Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Cultivars Grown Under Cr6+ Stress
- 12 Downloads
The present investigation assesses the physiological and biochemical responses of pomegranate plants (Punica granatum L.) to increased concentrations of hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) after 150 days of growth under in vivo conditions. The tested cultivars (cvs) were ‘Wonderful’, ‘Acco’, and ‘Ermioni’. The aim of this research was to study accumulation of total Cr and its distribution in leaves and roots, as well as its effects on growth, total chlorophyll (a + b), carotenoids, porphyrins, phenols, flavonoids, and antioxidant capacity (FRAP assay) of leaves. The measured parameters where the total fresh weight of leaves and roots; the total Cr concentration of leaves and roots; and the chlorophyll, carotenoids, porphyrins, and carbohydrate concentration. Furthermore, total phenols, flavonoids, and FRAP were measured. The results indicated that addition of Cr6+ in the nutrient solution caused augmentation of chromium concentration in roots and leaves of pomegranate plants. Total Cr in roots was 11–16 times greater than in leaves. Concerning porphyrin concentration, ‘Wonderful’ was the most negatively affected cultivar. Total phenols, flavonoids, and FRAP values increased due to Cr6+ treatment. Chromium concentration of 20 and 40 mg L−1 increased significantly chromium level of leaves and roots in pomegranate plants. ‘Ermioni’ accumulates less Cr in leaves, in comparison with the other cvs, and has greater chlorophyll, phenol, and flavonoid concentration and FRAP value. ‘Ermioni’ could be considered a more tolerant cv to Cr6+ toxicity compared with ‘Wonderful’ and ‘Acco’.
KeywordsBiochemical parameters Chromium Cultivar effect Heavy metal Pomegranate
We would like to express our sincere gratitude to G. Kostelenos nurseries, for kindly providing the pomegranate plants. Also, our sincere thanks to the laboratory staff of Institute of Soil and Water Resources, for their technical assistance in the inorganic analyses.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki and of the Institute of Soil and Water Resources, Hellenic Agricultural Organization Demeter.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Afshan S, Ali S, Bharwana SA, Rizwan M, Farid M, Abbas F, Ibrahim M, Mehmood MA, Abbasi GH (2015) Citric acid enhances the phytoextraction of chromium, plant growth, and photosynthesis by alleviating the oxidative damages in Brassica napus L. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 22:11679–11689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ahmed F, Hossain MS, Mohammad Abdullah AT, Akbor MA, Ahsan A, Md. (2016) Public health risk assessment of chromium intake from vegetables grown in the wastewater irrigated site in Bangladesh. Pollution 2:425–432Google Scholar
- Alsayed ME, Elqusy ON (2018) Heavy metals uptake and translocation by lettuce and spinach grown on a metal-contaminated soil. J Soil Sci Plant Nutr 18:1097–1107Google Scholar
- Barcelo J, Poschenrieder C (1997) Chromium in plants. In: Angeli-Canali S, Canali F, Tittarelli F, Sequi S (eds) Chromium environmental issues, Milan, pp 101–130Google Scholar
- Bingham FT (1982) Boron. In: Page AL (ed) Methods of soil analysis, part 2: Chemical and mineralogical properties. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, pp 431–448Google Scholar
- Das BC, Panda A, Sahoo PK, Jena S, Padhi P (2014) Effect of chromium (VI) on wheat seedlings and the role of chelating agents. Curr Sci Int 106:1387–1395Google Scholar
- Daud MK, Mei L, Variath MT, Ali S, Li C, Rafiq MT, Zhu SJ (2014) Chromium (VI) uptake and tolerance potential in cotton cultivars: effect on their root physiology, ultramorphology and oxidative metabolism. Biomed Res Int 12 pagesGoogle Scholar
- Elhassan H, Wahab A, Abdalla H, Busra E, Shiekh E, Nur E (2014) Effect of chromium on antioxidant enzyme activity in some sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) genotypes. Int J Sci Technol Res 3:19–27Google Scholar
- Fales WF (1951) The assimilation and degradation of carbohydrates by yeast cells. J Biol Chem 193:113–124Google Scholar
- Hoagland DR, Arnon DI (1950) The water culture method for growing plants without soil. Circ Calif Agric Exp Stn 347:1–32Google Scholar
- Kanto U, Jutamanee K, Osotsapar Y, Chai-Arree W, Jattupornpong S (2015) Promotive effect of priming with 5-aminolevulinic acid on seed germination capacity, seedling growth and antioxidant enzyme activity in rice subjected to accelerated ageing treatment. Plant Prod Sci 18:443–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kulbat K (2016) The role of phenolic compounds in plant resistance. Biotechnol Food Sci 80:97–108Google Scholar
- Mangabeira PA, Ferreira AS, De Almeida AA, Fernandes VF, Lucena E, Souza VL, Dos Santos Júnior AJ, Oliveira AH, Grenier-Loustalot MF, Barbier F, Silva DC (2011) Compartmentalization and ultrastuctural alterations induced by chromium in aquatic macrophytes. Biometals 24:1017–1026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mastrogiannidou E, Chatzissavvides C, Antonopoulou C, Tsabardoukas V, Giannakoula A, Therios I (2016) Response of pomegranate cv. Wonderful plants to salinity. J Soil Sci Plant Nut 16:621–636Google Scholar
- Miguel MG, Neves MA, Antunes MD (2010) Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.): a medicinal plant with myriad biological properties - a short review. J Med Plant Res 4:2836–2847Google Scholar
- Mohanty M, Patra KH (2016) Tolerance potential and physiological responses of Helianthus annuus L. exposed to varying doses of hexavalent chromium. J Mater Environ Sci 7:2221–2228Google Scholar
- Plummer DT (1987) An introduction to practical biochemistry. McGraw-Hill, London, 332 pGoogle Scholar
- Samantaray S, Das S, Mohanty RC, Mohanty M, Pradhan C (2015) Altered germination index and chlorophyll biosynthesis in seedlings of wild rice cultivars in response to hexavalent chromium stress. Discovery 27:27–35Google Scholar
- Shadreck M, Mugadza T (2013) Chromium, an essential nutrient and pollutant: a review. Afr J Pure Appl Chem 7:310–317Google Scholar
- Stambulska YU, Bayliak MM, Lushchak IV (2018, 2018) Chromium (VI) toxicity in legume plants: modulation effects of rhizobial symbiosis. Biomed Res Int 13 pagesGoogle Scholar
- Zhang D, Jiang L, Shao Y, Chai B, Li C (2009) Variations in germination and endogenous hormone contents of wheat cultivars under Cr stress. Chin J Appl Environ Biol 15:602–605Google Scholar