Sorption Kinetics of 2,4-D and Diuron Herbicides in a Urea-Fertilized Andisol

  • María José Spuler
  • Gabriela Briceño
  • Felix Duprat
  • Milko Jorquera
  • Camilo Céspedes
  • Graciela PalmaEmail author
Research Article


Sorption kinetics studies of herbicides, using different models, are an important tool for determining the mechanisms and kinetic parameters that explain the bioavailability and environmental behavior of these compounds. However, little is known about the combined effects of fertilizers and herbicides and how it could modify these processes on the soil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sorption kinetics of diuron and 2,4-D in an Andisol treated with urea using various kinetic models. The experiments were carried out in batch, independently for each herbicide, with urea application in an equivalent dose of 200 kg N ha−1 and artificial pH modifications. The results showed no differences in sorption kinetics due to urea for diuron; however 2,4-D showed differences with urea and changes in pH conditions. The data fitted well with the pseudo-second-order model (R2 > 0.996), showing a maximum soil adsorption capacity of 11.9, 10.8, and 9.61 mg kg−1 for diuron, 2,4-D, and 2,4-D-urea, respectively. The initial adsorption rate was similar for both herbicides, but a significant increase in the rate constant was observed for 2,4-D at acid pH. We conclude from the Elovich and Weber-Morris models that both herbicides were adsorbed mainly during the first stage, followed by lower adsorption in the slower second stage. According to these models, mass transfer across the boundary layer, and to a lesser degree intraparticle diffusion mechanisms, controlled sorption kinetics for both herbicides. The results suggest that urea application could influence sorption process of acid herbicides for pH changes in soils.


Herbicides Fertilizer Sorption kinetics Volcanic soil Kinetic models 



This study was funded by Universidad de La Frontera (grant number DI16-0062 and DI17-2012).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Abigail EA, Chidambaram R (2016) Rice husk as a low cost nanosorbent for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid removal from aqueous solutions. Ecol Eng 92:97–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abigail E, Samuel M, Needhidasan S, Ramalingam C (2017) Stratagem employed for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid removal from polluted water sources. Clean Techn Environ Policy 19:1607–1620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Báez ME, Fuentes E, Espinoza J (2013) Characterization of the atrazine sorption process on Andisol and Ultisol volcanic ash-derived soils: kinetic parameters and the contribution of humic fractions. J Agric Food Chem 61:6150–6160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cáceres L, Escudey M, Fuentes E, Báez ME (2010) Modeling the sorption kinetic of metsulfuron-methyl on Andisols and Ultisols volcanic ash-derived soils: kinetics parameters and solute transport mechanisms. J Hazard Mater 179:795–803CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cáceres L, Rodríguez R, Parra J, Escudey M, Barrientos L, Castro V (2013) Sorption kinetics of diuron on volcanic ash derived soils. J Hazard Mater 261:602–6013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cartes P, Jara A, Demanet R, Mora ML (2009) Urease activity and nitrogen mineralization kinetics as affected by temperature and urea input rate in southern Chilean Andisols. J Soil Sci Plant Nutr 9:69–82Google Scholar
  7. Chaplain V, Brault A, Tessier D, Défossez P (2008) Soil hydrophobicity: a contribution of diuron sorption experiments. Eur J Soil Sci 59:1202–1208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dores E, Spadotto C, Carbo L, Vecchiato B, Pinto A (2009) Environmental behaviour of metolachlor and diuron in a tropical soil in the central region of Brazil. Water Air Soil Pollut 197:175–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dos Reis F, Tornisielo V, Pimpinato R, Martins B, Filho R (2017) Leaching of diuron, hexazinone, and sulfometuron-methyl applied alone and in mixture in soils with contrasting textures. J Agric Food Chem 65:2645–2650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Elhussein EAA, Şahin S, Bayazit S (2018) Preparation of CeO2 nanofibers derived from Ce-BTC metal-organic frameworks and its application on pesticide adsorption. J Mol Liq 255:10–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Escudey M, Forster J, Galindo G (2004) Relevance of organic matter in some chemical and physical characteristics of volcanic ash-derived soils. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 35:781–797CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fernandez-Bayo J, Nogales R, Romero E (2008) Evaluation of the sorption process for imidacloprid and diuron in eight agricultural soils from southern Europe using various kinetic models. J Agric Food Chem 56:5266–5272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Giacomazzi S, Cochet N (2004) Environmental impact of diuron transformation: a review. Chemosphere 56:1021–1032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gupta VK, Ali I, Suhas, Saini VK (2006) Adsorption of 2,4-D and carbofuran pesticides using fertilizer and steel industry wastes. J Colloid Interface Sci 299:556–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hameed BH, Salman J, Ahmad A (2009) Adsorption isotherm and kinetic modeling of 2,4-D pesticide on activated carbon derived from date stones. J Hazard Mater 163:121–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hyun S, Lee L (2005) Quantifying the contribution of different sorption mechanisms for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid sorption by several variable-charge soils. Environ Sci Technol 39:2522–2528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Inoue, M., Oliveira, R., Regitano, J., Tormene, C., Constantin, J., Tornisiello, V. 2004. Sorption kinetics of atrazine and diuron in soils from southern Brazil. J Environ Sci Health Part B. B39, 589–601Google Scholar
  18. Kah M, Brown CD (2006) Adsorption of ionisable pesticides in soils. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 188:149–217Google Scholar
  19. Khan SU (1973) Equilibrium and kinetic studies of the adsorption of 2,4-D and picloram on humic acid. Can J Soil Sci 53:429–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Marileo L, Jorquera M, Hernández M, Briceño G, Mora MLDR, Palma G (2016) Changes in bacterial communities by post-emergent herbicides in an Andisol fertilized with urea as revealed by DGGE. App Soil Ecology 101:141–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Nethaji S, Sivasamy A (2017) Graphene oxide coated with porous iron oxide ribbons for 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) removal. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 138:292–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Nkedi-Kizza P, Shinde D, Savabi M, Ouyang Y, Nieves L (2006) Sorption kinetics of organic pesticides in carbonatic soils from South Florida. J Environ Qual 35:268–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. ODEPA (2010) Estudio de diagnóstico de mercado y estudio de la cadena de comercialización de fertilizantes en Chile [Spanish]. Oficina de Estudios y Políticas Agrarias, Ministerio de Agricultura, Gobierno de Chile, Santiago de Chile, 233 pp. Available on Accessed 20 July 2015
  24. Ololade I, Alomaja F, Oladoja N, Ololade O, Oloye F (2015) Kinetics and isotherm analysis of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyl acetic acid adsorption onto soil components under oxic and anoxic conditions. J Environ Sci Health, Part B 50:492–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Palma G, Demanet R, Jorquera M, Mora ML, Briceño G, Violante A (2015) Effecto f pH on sorption kinetic process of acidic herbicides in a volcanic soil. J Soil Sci Plant Nutr 15:549–560Google Scholar
  26. Palma G, Jorquera M, Demanet R, Elgueta S, Briceño G, Mora ML (2016) Urea fertilizer and pH influence on sorption process of flumetsulam and MCPA acidic herbicides in a volcanic soil. J Environ Qual 45:323–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Peterson H, McMaster A, Riechers E, Skelton J, Stahlman P (2016) 2,4-D past, present and future: a review. Weed Technol 30:303–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pignatello J, Xing B (1996) Mechanisms of slow sorption of organic chemicals to natural particles. Environ Sci Technol 30:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rocha P, Faria A, Borges L, Silva L, Silva A, Ferreira E (2013) Sorption and desorption of diuron in four Brazilian latosols. Planta Daninha 31:231–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sameni M, Ismail BS, Halimah M (2011) Sorption kinetics of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in selected agricultural soils of Malaysia. Res J Environ Toxicol 5:39–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Schwarzenbach RP, Gschwend PM, Imboden M (2003) Environmental organic chemistry, 2nd edn. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, N JGoogle Scholar
  32. Shareef K, Shaw G (2008) Sorption kinetics of 2,4-D and carbaryl in selected agricultural soils of northern Iraq: application of a dual-rate model. Chemosphere 72:8–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Sociedad Chilena de la Ciencia del Suelo 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • María José Spuler
    • 1
  • Gabriela Briceño
    • 1
  • Felix Duprat
    • 1
  • Milko Jorquera
    • 1
  • Camilo Céspedes
    • 1
  • Graciela Palma
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Scientific and Technological Bioresource Nucleus (BIOREN), Departamento de Ciencias Químicas y Recursos NaturalesUniversidad de La FronteraTemucoChile

Personalised recommendations