Effects of host resistance and plant-derived insecticides on mortality of Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) adults in stored maize

  • L. C. NwosuEmail author
  • C. O. Adedire
Original Research Article


The effect of host resistance and plant-derived insecticides on the mortality of adults of the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais, in maize was determined at ambient temperature (30.7 °C) and relative humidity (70.4%) using a 2-factor factorial arrangement in a Randomized Complete Block Design. Powders of pepper fruit (Dennettia tripetala) seeds, mistletoe (Viscum album) leaf, garlic (Allium sativum) bulbs, and clove (Syzygium aromaticum) inflorescence were applied separately to 2000SYNEE-WSTR (highly resistant to S. zeamais), TZBRCOMP.2C1F1 (resistant), ART/98/SW4-OB (moderately resistant), and PVASYN-3F2 (susceptible) maize varieties at the rates of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g per 20 g of grains. The same rate of permethrin (BEST 0.6% D) and an untreated control were included. A similar experiment was conducted using extracts applied at the rate of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 ml per 20 g of grains with permethrin (BEST 10% EC) and acetone serving as the control treatments. Denettia tripetala and S. aromaticum at 1.0 and 1.5 g or ml per 20 g grains matched the efficacy of permethrin by the 3rd and 4th day post-exposure, irrespective of maize resistance rating. Across test plants and rates of application, the use of botanicals added value significantly in a progressive way to host resistance. There were no variety or variety x protectant interaction effects on mortality of adult S. zeamais observed for four days at concentrations of 0.5–1.5% w/w or ml/ 20 g grains. There is need for further evaluation of the complementary action of varietal resistance and D. tripetala and S. aromaticum under long-duration storage conditions.


Resistance rating Botanical insecticides Integrated pest management 



Thanks to International Institute for Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria for supplying the maize varieties used for this study. We also thank Professor E.O. Ogunwolu (University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria) and Professor M.O. Ashamo (Federal University of Technology Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria) for their assistance. The paper is a product of the first author’s Ph.D. work in Federal University of Technology Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria.


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Copyright information

© African Association of Insect Scientists 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Crop and Soil Science, Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of Port HarcourtPort HarcourtNigeria
  2. 2.Department of BiologyFederal University of Technology AkureAkureNigeria

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