The effect of field natural rubber latex pretreatment with cationic exchange resin on latex dipped film properties

  • S. Kaewthai
  • S. Puangmanee
  • W. TaweepredaEmail author
Original Paper


The current practice of concentrated natural rubber latex production includes the reduction of magnesium ion (Mg2+) with the addition of diammonium phosphate (DAP) before being transferred to undergo concentration by a centrifugation process. But in this process, the chemical reaction between Mg2+ and DAP produces a sludge waste. In this research, cationic exchange resins are used to prevent the formation of sludge waste in the concentrated latex by prior removal of the Mg2+ ions from the field natural rubber latex instead of using chemical precipitation with DAP. Moreover, the extractable protein in the natural latex is absorbed by the cationic exchange resins, which results in low protein levels in the concentrated latex. This method, therefore, allows the manufacture of latex-based articles possessing reduced skin irritability specifically for those who are allergic to latex proteins. Thin films of the resulting latex concentrate on the former were characterised by a film property analysis. The physical properties of latex thin films are found to meet the requirements of ASTM D-3578-01a for natural rubber examination gloves.


Latex Resin Film Magnesium Protein 



This work has been partially supported by the Commission on Higher Education (CHE) and the National Science Technology and Innovation Policy Office through its Talent Mobility Program. S. Kaewthai would like to thank the Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology for Energy (CENE) and Graduate School, Prince of Songkla University for supporting the research funding.


  1. 1.
    Thai Industrial Standards Institute (2552) TIST 980 natural rubber latex concentrate. BangkokGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    ISO (2017) ISO 2004 Natural rubber latex concentrate- centrifuged or creamed, ammonia-preserved types—SpecificationsGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tekprasit V (2000) The utilization of the centrifuged residuce from concentrated latex industry as a soil conditioner. M.Sc. Thesis in environmental management, Prince of Songkla UniversityGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Blackley DC (1997) Polymer latices: science and technology. Chapman & Hall, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Puangmanee S (2016) Reduction of magnesium content in fresh natural rubber by ion exchange resin. Ph.D. Thesis in Environmental Management, Prince of Songkla UniversityGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yu Z, Qi T, Qu J, Wang L, Chu J (2009) Removal of Ca2+ and Mg2+ from potassium chromate solution on amberlite IRC 748 synthetic resin by ion exchange. J Hazard Mater 167(1–3):406–412. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Puangmanee S, Taweepreda W (2014) Feasibility studies of magnesium(II) removal from fresh field natural rubber latex using macroporous cationic exchange resin. Adv Materials Res 844:198–200. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ghosh S, Dhole K, Tripathy MK, Kumar R, Sharma RS (2015) FTIR spectroscopy in the characterization of mixture of nuclear grade cation and anion exchange resins. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 304:917–923. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Abdelwahab O, Amin NK, El-Ashtoukhy SZ (2013) Removal of zinc ions from aqueous solution using a cation exchange resin. Chem Eng Res Des 91(1):165–173. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Department of Intellectual Property. Thailand Patent Number 52860Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    ISO (2014) ISO 124 Latex, rubber–determination of total solids contentGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    ISO (2005) ISO 126 natural rubber latex–determination of dry rubber contentGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    ISO (2011) ISO 125 natural rubber latex–determination of alkalinityGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    ISO (1992) ISO 506 Rubber latex, natural, concentrate–determination of volatile fatty acid numberGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    ISO (2017) ISO 11852 Rubber-determination of magnesium content of field natural rubber latex by titrationGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Department of Industrial Works. (2001) Industrial sector code of practice for pollution prevention. Rubber Industry. Accessed 9 Feb 2019
  17. 17.
    ISO (2004) ISO 35 natural rubber latex concentrate-determination of mechanical stabilityGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    ISO (2012) ISO 127 rubber, natural latex concentrate determination of KOH numberGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tomazic-Jezic VJ, Lucas AD, Lamanna A, Stratmeyer ME (1999) Quantitation of natural rubber latex proteins: evaluation various protein measurement methods. Toxicol Methods 9(3):153–164. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    ASTM Standard D5712-15, “Standard test method for analysis of aqueous extractable protein in latex, natural rubber, and elastomeric products using the modified lowry method” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2003,,
  21. 21.
    ASTM D412-06a, “Standard test methods for vulcanized rubber and thermoplastic elastomers-tension ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2003, doi: 10.1520/D0412-06A,
  22. 22.
    Karunanayake L, Priyanthi Perera GM (2006) Effect of magnesium and phosphate ions on the stability of concentrated natural rubber latex and the properties of natural rubber latex-dipped products. J Appl Polym Sci 99(6):3120–3124. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ariyawiriyanan W, Nuinu J, Sae-Heng K, Kawahara S (2013) The mechanical properties of vulcanized deproteinized natural rubber. Energy Procedia 34:728–733. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Beezhold DH (1996) Methods to remove proteins from natural rubber latex. US Pat 5563241 AGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Malaysian Rubber Board 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and Technology, Faculty of SciencePrince of Songkla UniversityHat-YaiThailand
  2. 2.Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology for Energy (CENE)Prince of Songkla UniversityHat-YaiThailand
  3. 3.Environmental Science, Faculty of Science and TechnologyPhuket Rajabhat UniversityPhuketThailand

Personalised recommendations