Gate-road yield pillars are subject to increases in stress as the longwall face advances toward the pillars. Increases in pillar stress can be inferred by measuring roof/floor convergence surrounding the pillar. This paper presents a case study of convergence measurements surrounding a two-entry gate-road yield pillar in the head gate of a coal mine. Convergence was measured over a six-month period, as the longwall face approached and passed the pillar. Measurements were collected at eight locations surrounding the pillar: four locations in the travelway and four locations in the beltway. In addition to convergence stations, the pillar was instrumented with an array of seismometers. In future analysis, convergence measurements will be compared to seismic interpretations. This study reports on the geology and geometry of the longwall panel, the roof and rib support, the change in convergence over time, and the physical properties of coal and parting. Additionally, the convergence measurements are compared to pillar safety factor distributions derived from a finite element model. The convergence measurements contribute to the knowledge of when yield pillar abutment loading, caused by the encroaching longwall, is first detected. Knowing when abutment loading begins to yield the pillars can help define when standing secondary roof supports are required for head gate entry support.
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Funding for this research was provided by the National Institute for Occupational Health and Safety. The conclusions of this work are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the opinions or policies of the National Institute for Occupational Health and Safety.
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Coons, D.J., McCarter, M.K., Wempen, J.M. et al. Experimental Evaluation of a Two-Entry Gate-Road Yield Pillar: Convergence Monitoring and Physical Properties. Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42461-020-00192-y
- Longwall mining
- Ground control