Extraction and Separation of Zirconium Using 1-Octanol
- 10 Downloads
A selective extraction and separation of zirconium by solvent extraction with 1-octanol is proposed. The process is based on the dissolution of the metal basic carbonates in hydrochloric acid in the presence of potassium fluoride, using 1-octanol as extractant. The effect of several process parameters, including hydrochloric acid and potassium fluoride concentrations, reaction time, and phase ratio between the aqueous and the organic phase was investigated. Zirconium is enriched in the organic phase. The best extraction and separation results were obtained with the basic carbonate dissolved in 10% hydrochloric acid and 1.5 M potassium fluoride. The optimum reaction time was 15 min with an organic to aqueous phase ratio of 2:1. Based on the selectivity of zirconium over hafnium in the organic phase, a McCabe-Thiele diagram was constructed. A near complete stripping of zirconium from the organic phase was achieved using a 3 M sulphuric acid solution. Additional studies are required in order to determine the reaction mechanism and the chemical speciation of the current investigation.
KeywordsZirconium Hafnium Solvent extraction 1-Octanol Potassium fluoride
This study was financially supported by the University of Pretoria, the South African Research Foundation (NRF) and the DST’s Advanced Metals Initiative.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.
- 4.Zelikman AN, Krein OE, Samsonov GV (1966) Chapter V "Zirconium", Metallurgy of rare metals. 213–257. [Translated from Russian]Google Scholar
- 11.Yadollahi A, Saberyan K, Meisan TM, Amir C, Mohammad RZ (2018) Solvent extraction separation of Zr and Hf from nitric acid solutions using mixture of cyanex-272 and TBPGoogle Scholar
- 12.Wang LY, Lee MS (2016) Solvent extraction of Zr(IV) and Hf(IV) from sulfuric acid solutions by acidic extractants and their mixtures with TBP. J Korean Inst Resourc Recy 25(2):3–9Google Scholar
- 21.Hure J, Saint-James R (1956) Process for separation of zirconium and hafnium. Proceedings of the International Conference. Peaceful Uses Atomic Energy, Geneva 1955, United Nations, N.Y., Vol. 8 pp 551–555Google Scholar
- 22.Da Silva ABV, Distin PA (1998) Zirconium and hafnium separation without waste generation. CIM Bull 91:221Google Scholar
- 23.Moulin L, Thouvenin P, and Burn P (1984) New process for zirconium and hafnium separation. ASTM Special Technical Publication 824, pp 37–44Google Scholar
- 24.Nielsen RH, Schelewitz JH, Nielsen H (2001) Zirconium and zirconium compounds. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopaedia of Chemical Technology. 5th ed. John Wiley & Sons Vol 26, pp 621–664Google Scholar
- 25.Stephens WW (1984) Extractive metallurgy of zirconium – 1945 to the present. Zirconium in the nuclear industry: proceedings of the sixth international symposium. Franklin, D.G. and Adamson, R.B. (eds). ASTM special technical publication 824. American for Society of Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA. pp. 5–36Google Scholar
- 28.Besson P, Guerin J, Brun P, and Bakes M (1977) Process for the separation of zirconium and hafnium tetrachloride from mixtures thereof. US patent 4021531. Assignee: Ugine Aciers, ParisGoogle Scholar
- 29.Snyder TS, and Lee ED (1990) Zirconium and hafnium production in a zero liquid discharge process. US patent 5112493. Assignee: Westinghouse Electric Corp. (Pittsburgh, PA)Google Scholar
- 31.Benedict M, Pigford TH, Levi HW (1980) Nuclear chemical engineering. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 157–214Google Scholar
- 37.El Shafie AS, Daher AM, Ahmed IS, Sheta ME, Moustafa MM (2004) Extraction and separation of nano-sized zirconia from nitrate medium using Cyanex921. Int J Adv Res 2(11):647–659Google Scholar
- 38.Pershina V, Polakova D, Omtveldt JP (2002) Theoritical predictions of complexes formation of group-4 elements Zr, Hf and Rf in H2SO4 solutions. Radiochim Acta 94:407–414Google Scholar