Activation Mechanism of Lead Ions in the Flotation of Rutile Using Amyl Xanthate as a Collector

  • Xingcai Yu
  • Qinbo CaoEmail author
  • Heng Zou
  • Qianshan Peng


In this work, a new flotation strategy was proposed for the flotation of rutile. In this strategy, rutile was activated by Pb(NO3)2 and then floated with amyl xanthate (AX) as a collector at pH 8. Pb(OH)+ was the dominant lead species in the solution at pH 8 and is believed to be the major species reacting with the rutile surface. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) study revealed that the lead activation products were well distributed on the rutile surface, and AX could further bind with the Pb atom on the Pb-activated rutile surface. In this regard, the Pb-activated rutile could be floated by AX. Furthermore, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicated that Pb(OH)2 was generated on the Pb-activated rutile surface. The electron transfer during the adsorption of the AX on the Pb-activated rutile surface was also investigated by XPS analysis.


Rutile Activation Lead ion Flotation TOF-SIMS 



We appreciate the financial support from the Analysis and Testing Foundation of Kunming University of Science and Technology (China).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

42461_2019_106_MOESM1_ESM.doc (315 kb)
ESM 1 (DOC 315 kb)


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Copyright information

© Society for Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration Inc. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xingcai Yu
    • 1
  • Qinbo Cao
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Heng Zou
    • 1
  • Qianshan Peng
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Land Resources EngineeringKunming University of Science and TechnologyKunmingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Complex Nonferrous Metal Resources Clean UtilizationKunmingPeople’s Republic of China

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