Synthesis and abrasive wear performance of stir cast AA6063-TiC composite materials
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Typically Aluminum 6063 matrix composites have an extensive wear resistance application due to its high specific strength. Here the stir casting fabricated composites having 0, 3, 6 and 9 wt% of titanium carbide (TiC) are tested using a pin on disc sliding wear test equipment. Loads (P), speed (sliding and rotation) and sliding distance (D) are the input parameters. The improvement in hardness was observed when TiC content increases due to the homogeneous dispersion strengthening mechanism. The incorporation of TiC in the AA6063 matrix reduces the rate of wear (WR) and increases the resistance to wear. The “COF” reduces when the TiC composition increases. The “WR” and COF increase when ‘D’ and ‘P’ increases for all the compositions tested.
KeywordsAA6063 TiC “WR” Coefficient friction
Aluminum alloy is the best alternative material for mechanical, structural and electrical parts because of its special properties. The major drawback of these alloys is low wear resistance particularly in sliding applications [1, 2]. To overcome these problems composite materials are introduced for many applications including automotive and electronics industries [3, 4]. AA6063 is widely used in wear applications like cylinder liners, brakes, pistons, and motor casing. By improving the wear resistance of AA6063 and used in many more applications. The properties of the AA6063 changed by reinforcing with ceramic particles have been received superior properties. TiC pays attention due to its high hardness, strength, poor heat conduction, reduced tendency of particle agglomeration, thermodynamically stable with molten aluminum and good wetting compatibility [5, 6, 7, 8, 9]. Several investigations are focusing on the wear properties of the composites. According to Sannino and Rack, the significant process parameters can control the “WR” and “COF” in the Aluminum Matrix Composites (AMC) under dry sliding atmosphere [10, 11]. Acilar and Gul investigated the effect of adding SiC in the aluminum matrix and found that “WR” increases when “D” and ‘P’ increase . Al-Qutub et al. observed that the addition of 10 vol% Al2O3 particles improved the resistance to wear of AA6160 when related to the unreinforced alloy. The addition of Al2O3 content further improves the wear property by up to 145% . The dry sliding behavior of Al–12Si4Mg alloy having cerium content found that increasing cerium until 2 wt% improves both resistance to wear and microhardness . Canaki et al.  found that the larger size of B4C has more wear resistance than the smaller size. Sahin  used ANOVA for analyzing the wear properties of AA2014–15 wt% SiC composite. Koksal et al.  found that dry sliding wear property of Al/AlB2 composites are influenced by normal “P”, reinforcement ratio, sliding velocity and distance using L9 Taguchi orthogonal array. However, only a few studies are focused on TiC reinforced aluminum composites. The motive of this present research is to report the wear performance of AA6063-TiC composites using a pin-on-disc apparatus.
2 Experimental details
Pin on disc apparatus is used to test the abrasive wear (Fig. 1c) as per the standards ASTM G99, The samples were a cylindrical shape of size 30 × 10 mm is shown in Fig. 1d. Before testing, the flat surface was polished. During testing, the specimen was forced on the EN 31 steel horizontal rotating disc having 600 grit SiC abrasive paper. The tests were accomplished with “P”s 10 N, 20 N, 30 N and 40 N, TiC weight percentages 0 wt%, 3 wt%, 6 wt% and 9 wt%, sliding velocities 1 m/s, 2 m/s, 3 m/s and 4 m/s and “D”s 500 m, 1000 m, 1500 m and 2000 m.
3 Results and discussion
3.1 Microstructural effect
3.2 Wear effect
The TiC reinforced composites demonstrate low “COF” when related to the pure AA6063 matrix. Furthermore, the heat produced in the contact surfaces during the relative motion enhances the “COF” due to the existence of the carbon-rich layer and heat dissipation does not take place. Accordingly, the rigid severities of the composites, the “COF” for the TiC integrated AMC decreases when compared to pure AA6063. These features assist in controlling the “COF” in AA6063-TiC composites. For all the AA6063-TiC composites samples, the “COF” raises with a rise in the “P” and “D”.
During the initial phase of wear, an oxide film formed on the surface of AA6063-TiC composite might greater wear resistance. The wear resistance of the composites improved, due to the form that, at the initial stage, the contact surface normally consists of valley and hills. But for the higher value of sliding distance, these surfaces are getting finer and influencing the wear resistance of the composites . The hard TiC on the surface producing layer and when the distance and speed increase, irrespective of load the wear resistance improved. The increase in weight percentage of TiC declines the wear of the composite and TiC resists the wear because the hardness of the TiC is higher than the counterpart and matrix material of the composite. The TiC sliding over the surface and change the nature of along with the carbide layer over the surface .
The hardness increases with increasing the wt % of TiC due to uniform dispersion strengthening mechanism.
The inclusion of TiC to AA6063 reduces the “WR” of the matrix and thereby increasing the wear resistance due to self-lubricating properties.
The “COF” reduces with the inclusion of TiC particles due to the presence of intermetallic phases.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there are no conflict of interest.
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