Development of Perovskite Barium Titanate by an Agate Mortar Mill Activated Solid-State Process

  • M. Shahnawaz
  • S. Khan
  • Soumya MukherjeeEmail author
Research and Development Electroceramics


Perovskite barium titanate synthesis was carried by modified hand-mill activated solid-state processing followed by annealing in air atmosphere with oxide precursors of barium oxide, titania at 1300 °C for 4 h after 2 h of hand-on mill activation. Phase analysis by XRD confirmed perovskite barium titanate and crystallite size estimation was observed to be about 76 nm. Homogenous growth of various agglomerates was observed, and bonding information of Ti-O, O-Ti-O stretching vibrations validates phases generated from FTIR analysis. The band gap was estimated to be about 3.38 eV from UV-VIS spectra using the Tauc formula.


barium titanate phase analysis morphology band gap 



The author would like to thank Dr. Sathi Banerjee, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Jadavpur University, for providing the XRD facility and Dr. Kalyan Kumar Chattyapodhyay, Jadavpur University, for providing the FESEM and HRTEM facilities.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electronics and Communication EngineeringHeritage Institute of TechnologyKolkataIndia
  2. 2.Department of Metallurgical and Materials EngineeringJadavpur UniversityKolkataIndia
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical and Automation EngineeringAmity University KolkataKolkataIndia

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