Effect of Orifice Geometry on Column Trajectories of Liquid Jets in Crossflows

  • Yoonho Song
  • Donghyun Hwang
  • Kyubok AhnEmail author
Original Paper


Effects of orifice geometry on liquid column trajectories of liquid jets in subsonic crossflows were experimentally studied. One circular and four elliptical plain-orifice injectors with different aspect ratios of 1/3 to 3, were designed and utilized. By changing the injection pressure drop from 1 bar to 6 bar with an increment of 1 bar, and thus the liquid–air momentum flux ratio from 15 to 106, back-lit spray photographs of liquid jets in crossflows were taken and then analyzed using an in-house code to detect the upper boundary and centerline of the liquid jet before the breakup point. Analytical liquid column trajectories for circular and elliptical liquid jets were derived through simple assumptions and compared with present experimental data. It was found that the aspect ratio affected the difference between the analytical drag coefficient and the experimental one. Novel empirical equations for liquid column trajectories of circular and elliptical liquid jets in crossflows were suggested as a function of equivalent orifice diameter, liquid–air momentum flux ratio and aspect ratio. The results showed that the present empirical equation for the circular orifice injector could be reasonably applied to the elliptical orifice injectors when the aspect ratio was below one.


Elliptical liquid jet Jet in a crossflow Liquid column trajectory 

List of symbols


Aspect ratio (b/a)


Diameter of an elliptical orifice in the crossflow direction


Diameter of an elliptical orifice in the direction transverse to crossflows


Drag coefficient


Diameter of a circular orifice


Equivalent orifice diameter (d for a circular orifice and \( {\text{d}}_{\text{eq}} = \sqrt {ab} \) for an elliptical orifice)


Frontal diameter of liquid jet perpendicular to crossflows


Side diameter of liquid jet parallel to crossflows


Orifice length


Liquid–air momentum flux ratio (\( {\text{q}} = \rho_{\text{l}} V_{\text{l}}^{2} /\rho_{\text{a}} u_{\text{a}}^{2} \))


Coefficient of determination


Reynolds number based on the characteristic length (L = a)




Air velocity in the test section


X-directional velocity of liquid column


Liquid jet exit velocity


Air Weber number (\( We_{\text{a}} = \rho_{\text{a}} u_{\text{a}}^{2} d_{\text{eq}} /\sigma \))


Distance in the crossflow direction from the center of an orifice exit


Distance in the direction transverse to crossflows from the center of an orifice exit


Centerline of liquid column (yc = 0.5 × (yu + yl))


Lower boundary of liquid column


Upper boundary of liquid column


Distance in the spanwise direction


Injection pressure drop


Air density in the test section


Liquid density



This research was supported by National Research Foundation Grants (NRF-2013R1A5A1073861, NRF-2017R1A1A1A05001237, and NRF-2018M1A3A3A02065683), funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT, South Korea. The authors would like to thank the MSIT for its support.


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Copyright information

© The Korean Society for Aeronautical & Space Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chungbuk National UniversityCheongjuRepublic of Korea

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