Indian Phytopathology

, Volume 71, Issue 4, pp 495–503 | Cite as

Pathogenic variability in Phytophthora capsici from black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) as revealed by transcriptome analysis

  • Anandaraj MuthuswamyEmail author
  • Vinitha Kakkattil Balakrishnan
  • Umadevi Palaniyandi
  • Monica V. Chandran
Research Article


Phytophthora capsici, the causal organism of foot rot disease of black pepper exhibits wide variation in their virulence among the isolates. To understand the underlying mechanisms RNA-Seq analysis was carried out using a highly virulent (05-06) and less virulent (98-49) isolate of P. capsici from black pepper. The isolates were inoculated separately on the black pepper variety “IISR-Subhakara”, susceptible to Phytophthora and the leaf samples collected at 8, 24 and 48 h post inoculation (hpi) were subjected to RNA-Seq analysis. The isolates showed stage specific and infection responsive expression of various effectors and other proteins. The highly virulent isolate, 05-06 was found to be in biotrophic stage at 8 hpi and expressed various apoplastic and cytoplasmic effectors, the expression of which was several folds higher than that in less virulent isolate 98-49. By 24 hpi, the virulent isolate was in necrotrophic stage. The less virulent isolate 98-49, was also in biotrophic stage at 8 hpi and at 24 hpi it was in a stage of transition between biotrophic and necrotrophic phase and was in complete necrotrophic stage at 48 hpi. The over expression of various effector proteins and their tight temporal expression during the process of infection is the cause for the variation in virulence of the P. capsici isolates from black pepper.


Biotrophic stage Effector proteins Necrotrophic stage RNA-Seq Temporal expression Apoplastic effectors 



The authors acknowledge with thanks the financial support from ICAR-Outreach programme on Phytophthora, Fusarium and Ralstonia diseases of horticultural and field crops (PhytoFuRa). The help rendered by Dr. D. Prasath and Ms. Neethukrishna, ICAR-Indian Institute of Spices Research, Kozhikode, Kerala, while analyzing the data is greatly acknowledged.

Supplementary material

42360_2018_77_MOESM1_ESM.docx (18 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 17 kb)
42360_2018_77_MOESM2_ESM.docx (14 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 14 kb)


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Copyright information

© Indian Phytopathological Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anandaraj Muthuswamy
    • 1
    Email author
  • Vinitha Kakkattil Balakrishnan
    • 1
  • Umadevi Palaniyandi
    • 1
  • Monica V. Chandran
    • 1
  1. 1.ICAR-Indian Institute of Spices ResearchKozhikodeIndia

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