Indian Phytopathology

, Volume 71, Issue 4, pp 571–577 | Cite as

Field evaluation of the bio-efficacy of Bacillus subtilis DR-39 formulation for enhancing pesticide degradation in grapes and optimisation of application dose

  • K. T. Suryawanshi
  • I. S. SawantEmail author
  • S. D. Sawant
  • T. P. Ahammed Shabeer
  • S. Saha
  • A. Pudale
  • R. K. Dantre
Research Article


In tropical regions of India, a number of diseases and insect pests cause substantial economic damage to the grape crop and timely pesticide applications are required for crop protection. At times, this results in detection of pesticide residue above the specified maximum residue levels (MRL) at harvest affecting international trade. Use of Bacillus species to enhance the degradation of the pesticide residues on grape berries is an emerging option. In this study, the bio-efficacy of a WP formulation of Bacillus subtilis DR-39 in enhancing the dissipation rate of eight pesticides was evaluated during 2016–2017 and 2017–2018 on Thompson Seedless grapes. The pesticides were applied twice as foliar spray at their recommended doses followed by application of B. subtilis DR-39 at 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 g/l after 4 days of the second pesticide application. In 2017–2018, B. subtilis DR-39 was applied at 2.5 g/l, twice at 4 day intervals. The pesticide residues were analysed on LC–MS/MS by ethyl acetate based extraction method on a time frame and degradation kinetics were calculated. The average enhancement in dissipation by B. subtilis DR-39 was 13.7% @ 1.0 g/l, 19.0% @ 2.5 g/l and 22.7% @ 5.0 g/l. Application of B. subtilis DR-39 @ 2.5 g/l reduced the calculated half-life of the pesticides by 1–3 days, except by 5 and 6.5 days for buprofezin and hexaconazole respectively during 2016–2017, and by 6 days for hexaconazole during 2017–2018. Studies show that B. subtilis DR-39 applications in vineyards can be utilized for faster degradation of multi-class pesticide residues.


Bio-degradation B. subtilis DR-39 Food safety Grape Pesticide residues 



The authors are grateful to ICAR for partial funding under ICAR-AMMAS project and to M/s Zytex Biotech Pvt. Ltd., Vadodara, Gujarat, India, for providing the formulation of B. subtilis DR-39 for the trials.


  1. APEDA, Grapenet database (2015) Accessed June 2016
  2. Aziz MW, Sabit H, Tawakkol W (2014) Biodegradation of malathion by Pseudomonas spp. and Bacillus spp. isolated from polluted sites in Egypt. Am Eurasian J Agric Environ Sci 14:855–862Google Scholar
  3. Barata A, Malfeito-Ferreira M, Loureiro V (2012) The microbial ecology of wine grape berries. Int J Food Microbiol 153:243–259. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chowdhury SP, Dietel K, Randler M, Schmid M, Junge H, Borriss R, Hartmann A, Grosch R (2013) Effects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 on lettuce growth and health under pathogen pressure and its impact on the rhizosphere bacterial community. PLoS One 8:e68818. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cycon M, Piotrowska-Seget Z, Wojcik M (2010) Biodegradation kinetics of the benzimidazole fungicide thiophanate-methyl by bacteria isolated from loamy sand soil. Biodegradation 22:573–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. EU (2011) Regulations: Commission Regulation (EU) No 559/2011of 7 June 2011. Official Journal of the European Union.
  7. Gauthier NW (2016) Effectiveness of fungicides for management of grape diseases. Cooperative extension service, College of Agriculture, University of Kentucky, Food and Environment PPFS-FR-S-18Google Scholar
  8. Jadhav MR, Oulkar DP, Shabeer TPA, Banerjee K (2015) Quantitative screening of agrochemical residues in fruits and vegetables by buffered ethyl acetate extraction and LC-MS/MS analysis. J Agric Food Chem 63:4449–4456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kantor A, Kacaniova M (2015) Diversity of bacteria and yeasts on the surface of table grapes. Anim Sci Biotechnol 48:149–155Google Scholar
  10. Keller M (2015) Developmental physiology. In: Keller M (ed) The science of grapevines: anatomy and physiology, 2nd edn. Academic, Burlington, pp 193–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kodandaram MH, Yengkhom BK, Banerjee K, Hingmire S, Rai AB, Singh B (2017) Field bioefficacy, phytotoxicity and residue dynamics of the insecticide flonicamid (50 WG) in okra [Abelmoschus esculenta (L) Moench]. Crop Prot 94:13–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Mandal S, Das S, Bhattacharyya A (2010) Dissipation study of thiophanate methyl residue in/on grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) in India. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 84:592–595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Mandal K, Singh B, Jariyal M, Gupta V (2013) Bioremediation of fipronil by a Bacillus firmus isolate from soil. Chemosphere 101:55–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Munnecke DM, Johnson LM, Talbot HW, Barik S (1982) Microbial metabolism and enzymology of selected pesticides. In: Chakrabarty AM (ed) Biodegradation and detoxification of environmental pollutants. CRC, Boca Raton, pp 1–32Google Scholar
  15. National Horticulture Board (2016) Horticulture-statistical year book India 2016, Government of India. Accessed Apr 2017Google Scholar
  16. Ortiz-Hernandez ML, Sanchez-Salinas E, Godinez MLC, Gonzalez ED, Ursino ECP (2013) Mechanisms and strategies for pesticide biodegradation: opportunity for waste, soils and water cleaning. Rev Int Contam Ambient 29:85–104Google Scholar
  17. Rathnayake RM (2012) Characterisation of Aureobasidium pullulans (De Bary) on Vitis vinifera L. (cv. Chardonnay) with potential biocontrol of bitter rot, Greeneria uvicola. Ph.D thesis, Faculty of Science School of Agricultural and Wine Sciences, Charles Sturt University, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  18. Salunkhe VP, Sawant IS, Banerjee K, Rajguru YR, Wadkar PN, Oulkar DP, Naik DG, Sawant SD (2013) Biodegradation of profenofos by Bacillus subtilis isolated from grapevines (Vitis vinifera). J Agric Food Chem 61:7195–7202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Salunkhe VP, Sawant IS, Banerjee K, Wadkar PN, Sawant SD, Hingmire SA (2014) Kinetics of degradation of carbendazim by B. subtilis strain: possibility of in situ detoxification. Environ Monit Assess 186:8599–8610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Salunkhe VP, Sawant IS, Banerjee K, Wadkar PN, Sawant SD, Hingmire SA (2015) Enhanced dissipation of triazole and multiclass pesticide residues on grapes after foliar application of grapevine-associated Bacillus Species. J Agric Food Chem 63:10736–10746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sawant IS, Sawant SD (2012) Diseases of grapes. In: Mishra AK, Chowdappa P, Sharma P, Khetarpal RK (eds) Diseases of fruit crops. Indian Phytopathological Society, New Delhi, pp 113–147Google Scholar
  22. Sawant IS, Wadkar PN, Rajguru YR, Mhaske NH, Salunkhe VP, Sawant SD, Upadhyay A (2016) Biocontrol potential of two novel grapevine associated Bacillus strains for management of anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Biocontrol Sci Tech 26(7):964–979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Shabeer TPA, Banerjee K, Jadhav M, Girame R, Utture S, Hingmire S, Oulkar P (2015) Residue dissipation and processing factor for dimethomorph, famoxadone and cymoxanil during raisin preparation. Food Chem 170:180–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Yadav DS, Amala U (2013) Insect and mite pest management. In: Adsule PG, Yadav DS, Upadhyay A, Satisha J, Sharma AK (eds) Good agricultural practices for production of quality table grapes. ICAR-National Research Centre for Grapes, Pune, pp 38–46Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Phytopathological Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. T. Suryawanshi
    • 1
    • 2
  • I. S. Sawant
    • 1
    Email author
  • S. D. Sawant
    • 1
  • T. P. Ahammed Shabeer
    • 1
  • S. Saha
    • 1
  • A. Pudale
    • 1
  • R. K. Dantre
    • 2
  1. 1.ICAR-National Research Centre for GrapesPuneIndia
  2. 2.Department of Plant PathologyIGKVRaipurIndia

Personalised recommendations