Task Repetition and Corrective Feedback: The Role of Feedback Types and Structure Saliency
This study investigated the effects of task and procedural repetition provided with oral corrective feedback on the development of regular and irregular past tense structures. Seventy-four English as a foreign language (EFL) learners in mixed-age groups from a private language institute were randomly assigned to four conditions: input-providing recasts with exact task repetition (IP+TR), input-providing recasts with procedural repetition (IP+PR), output-prompting clarification requests with exact task repetition (OP+TR), and output-prompting clarification requests with procedural repetition (OP+PR). Learners took part in a pretest, three repeated task performances, and a delayed posttest over a 6-week period. Corrective feedback either as recast or clarification requests was provided to the groups after the performance of the first task. The task repetition groups repeated the same narrative task with the same content, while the procedural repetition groups performed the same task procedure with different content on 3 consecutive days. Statistical comparisons revealed the superiority of clarification requests over recasts irrespective of repetition type or linguistic structure. Additionally, structure saliency and task repetition had the most notable influence on the IP+TR group by enhancing the impact of recasts that otherwise had limited effect. These findings are discussed in terms of different features of task repetition and the role of corrective feedback in directing attention to form.
KeywordsTask repetition Procedural repetition Recast Clarification request Linguistic saliency
本研究探討在口語活動「任務重複」與「程序重複」情況下, 兩種教師口語糾正反饋(oral corrective feedback: recast口語重塑vs. clarification request澄清詢問) 對英語為外語(EFL) 學習者的規則和不規則過去式結構發展的影響。為此, 本研究從私人語言機構招募了74名不同年齡之英語為外語學習者。這些學習者被隨機分配至下列四種實驗介入組別: 輸入型口語重塑+任務重複(IP + TR) 、輸入型口語重塑+程序重複(IP + PR) 、輸出型澄清詢問+任務重複(OP + TR) 、輸出型澄清詢問+程序重複(OP + PR) 。每組學習者於六週內參與了前測、三次口語任務與延遲後測。在完成第一次口語任務後, 學習者接受口語重塑或澄清詢問的 糾正反饋。除此之外, 若分配在任務重複組, 他們在接下來的(兩次) 口語任務就重複相同內容的敘述任務; 若分配在程序重複組, 則接續的口語任務則完成不同內容但相同的程序的敘述任務。比較統計結果顯示無論重複類型為何或是針對的語言結構為何, 澄清詢問介入效果皆優於口語重塑。此外, 所針對的文法結構顯著性 (structural saliency) 和任務重複因素(task repetition)對於增強(IP + TR) 組別中口語重塑的效果有著相當顯著的影響。有鑒於上述結果, 本研究就如何以任務重複及糾正反饋引導學生注意力進行深入討論。
關鍵詞任務重複 程序重複 口語重塑 澄清詢問 語言顯著性
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Conflict of Interest
The author declares that she has no conflict of interest.
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