Advertisement

English Teaching & Learning

, Volume 43, Issue 1, pp 65–83 | Cite as

The Application of Translanguaging in an English for Specific Purposes Writing Course

  • Fay Chen
  • Shu-Chiao Tsai
  • Wenli TsouEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

The current study examines how translanguaging contributes to college students’ English for Specific Purposes (ESP) writing in Taiwan, and how students’ multiple linguistic resources, including home languages, target language, and online tools, are utilized to produce quality writing. In this study, college students, aided by online translation software, underwent a translingual writing process that involved tasks from drafting in Chinese, drafting in English, online translation, to revision. The text was then analyzed with an assessment rubric to identify areas of improvement. Comparison of text indicates that translanguaging is shown to have synergistically helped students leverage their multiple linguistic resources to convey more information, express more ideas, while achieving a wider use of general, academic, and idea words. Analysis of the translanguaging writing process also indicates that students engaged in more writing steps, from pre-writing, reproducing, online translation, editing, to revising. Implications from the study indicate multiple benefits from creating a learning environment where translanguaging are encouraged.

Keywords

Translanguaging ESP writing L2 writing Higher education Online translation 

跨語言實踐在專業英文寫作課程中的應用

摘要

本研究探討跨語言實踐對台灣大學生專業英文 (ESP) 寫作的影響, 以及學生如何利用多種語言資源 (包括母語、目標語言、線上工具) 來提 升寫作品質。在這項研究中, 大學生在線上翻譯軟體的幫助下, 進行了跨語言實踐寫作。過程包括中文寫作、英文寫作、線上翻譯、英文稿修 訂等任務。研究人員將學生完成的作文進行評估。結果顯示, 跨語言實踐有助於學生利用多種語言資源來傳達信, 表達更深入想法, 同時更 廣泛地使用一般、學術和專業詞語。本研究結果也顯示, 學生在跨語言實踐的寫作過程中能執行更多的寫作任務, 包括進行預先寫作、轉譯、線上翻譯、編輯到修改等步驟。由此可見, 跨語言實踐的學習環境可為學生的專業英文寫作帶來多重好處。

關鍵詞

跨語言實踐 專業英文寫作 第二語言寫作 高等教育 線上翻譯 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the participants of the study, the financial support from the Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan, and the three anonymous reviewers for their careful reading and constructive suggestions.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Canagarajah, A. S. (2011a). Codemeshing in academic writing: identifying teachable strategies of translanguaging. The Modern Language Journal, 95(3), 401–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Canagarajah, A. S. (2011b). Translanguaging in the classroom: emerging issues for research and pedagogy. Applied Linguistics Review, 2, 1–27.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Canagarajah, A. S. (2013). Translingual practice: global Englishes and cosmopolitan relations. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Canagarajah, A. S. (2018). Translingual practice as spatial repertoires: expanding the paradigm beyond structuralist orientations. Applied Linguistics, 39(1), 31–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cook, G. (2010). Translation in language teaching: an argument for reassessment. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Coxhead, A. J. (1998). An academic word list. (English Language Institute Occasional Publication No. 18). Wellington: Victoria University of Wellington.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Druce, P. M. (2012). Attitudes to the use of L1 and translation in second language teaching and learning. Journal of second Language Teaching and Research, 2(1), 60–86.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fraser, L., Harich, K., Norby, J., Brzovic, K., Rizkallah, T., & Loewy, D. (2005). Diagnostic and value-added assessment of business writing. Business Communication Quarterly, 68(3), 290–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    García, O., & Li, W. (2014). Translanguaging: language, bilingualism and education. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    García, O., & Lin, A. M. Y. (2016). Translanguaging in bilingual education. In O. García & A. M. Y. Lin (Eds.), Bilingual and multilingual education (encyclopedia of language and education, Vol. 5). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gimenez, J., & Thondhlana, J. (2012). Collaborative writing in engineering: perspectives from research and implications for undergraduate education. European Journal of English Education, 37(5), 471–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gunnarsson, T., Housen, A., van de Weijer, J., & Kallkvist, M. (2015). Multilingual students’ self-reported use of their language repertoires when writing in English. Apples – Journal of Applied LanguageStudies, 9(1), 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Han, S., & Shin, J.-A. (2017). Teaching Google search techniques in an L2 academic writing context. Language, Learning and Technology, 21(3), 172–194.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hynnien, N. (2018). Impact of digital tools on the research writing process: a case study of collaborative writing in computer science. Discourse, Context & Media, 24, 16–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jones, R. H., Chik, A., & Hafner, C. A. (Eds.). (2015). Discourse and digital practices: doing discourse analysis in the digital age. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kuteeva, M., & Mauranen, A. (2018). Digital academic discourse: texts and contexts. Introduction. Discourse, Context & Media, 24, 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kvashnina, O. S., & Sumtsova, O. V. (2018). Using Google to search language patterns in web-corpus: EFL writing pedagogy. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 13(3), 173–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
  19. 19.
    Leonardi, V. (2010). The role of pedagogical translation in second language acquisition. Bern: Peter Lang.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Li, W. (2011). Moment analysis and translanguaging space: discursive construction of identities by multilingual Chinese youth in Britain. Journal of Pragmatics, 43, 1222–1235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tsai, S. C. (2018a). Using Google Translate in EFL drafts: a preliminary investigation. Computer Assisted Language Learning. Manuscript accepted for publication.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tsai, S. C. (2018b). A preliminary study of Google Translate implemented into EFL writing: effectiveness and student perceptions. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tullock, B. D., & Fernandez-Villanueva, M. (2013). The role of previously learned languages in the thought processes of multilingual writers at the Deutsche Schule Barcelona. Research in the Teaching of English, 47(4), 420–441.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wang, W., & Wen, Q. (2002). L1 use in the L2 composing process: an exploratory study of 16 Chinese EFL writers. Journal of Second Language Writing, 11(3), 225–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Weijen, D., Bergh, H., Rijlaarsdam, G., & Sanders, T. (2009). L1 use during L2 writing: an empirical study of a complex phenomenon. Journal of Second Language Writing, 18, 235–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    West, M. (1953). A general service list of English words. London: Longman, Green & Co..Google Scholar

Copyright information

© National Taiwan Normal University 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Cheng Kung UniversityTainanTaiwan
  2. 2.National Kaohsiung University of Science and TechnologyKaohsiungTaiwan

Personalised recommendations