The Application of Translanguaging in an English for Specific Purposes Writing Course
The current study examines how translanguaging contributes to college students’ English for Specific Purposes (ESP) writing in Taiwan, and how students’ multiple linguistic resources, including home languages, target language, and online tools, are utilized to produce quality writing. In this study, college students, aided by online translation software, underwent a translingual writing process that involved tasks from drafting in Chinese, drafting in English, online translation, to revision. The text was then analyzed with an assessment rubric to identify areas of improvement. Comparison of text indicates that translanguaging is shown to have synergistically helped students leverage their multiple linguistic resources to convey more information, express more ideas, while achieving a wider use of general, academic, and idea words. Analysis of the translanguaging writing process also indicates that students engaged in more writing steps, from pre-writing, reproducing, online translation, editing, to revising. Implications from the study indicate multiple benefits from creating a learning environment where translanguaging are encouraged.
KeywordsTranslanguaging ESP writing L2 writing Higher education Online translation
本研究探討跨語言實踐對台灣大學生專業英文 (ESP) 寫作的影響, 以及學生如何利用多種語言資源 (包括母語、目標語言、線上工具) 來提 升寫作品質。在這項研究中, 大學生在線上翻譯軟體的幫助下, 進行了跨語言實踐寫作。過程包括中文寫作、英文寫作、線上翻譯、英文稿修 訂等任務。研究人員將學生完成的作文進行評估。結果顯示, 跨語言實踐有助於學生利用多種語言資源來傳達信, 表達更深入想法, 同時更 廣泛地使用一般、學術和專業詞語。本研究結果也顯示, 學生在跨語言實踐的寫作過程中能執行更多的寫作任務, 包括進行預先寫作、轉譯、線上翻譯、編輯到修改等步驟。由此可見, 跨語言實踐的學習環境可為學生的專業英文寫作帶來多重好處。
關鍵詞跨語言實踐 專業英文寫作 第二語言寫作 高等教育 線上翻譯
The authors would like to thank the participants of the study, the financial support from the Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan, and the three anonymous reviewers for their careful reading and constructive suggestions.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 2.Canagarajah, A. S. (2011b). Translanguaging in the classroom: emerging issues for research and pedagogy. Applied Linguistics Review, 2, 1–27.Google Scholar
- 5.Cook, G. (2010). Translation in language teaching: an argument for reassessment. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- 6.Coxhead, A. J. (1998). An academic word list. (English Language Institute Occasional Publication No. 18). Wellington: Victoria University of Wellington.Google Scholar
- 7.Druce, P. M. (2012). Attitudes to the use of L1 and translation in second language teaching and learning. Journal of second Language Teaching and Research, 2(1), 60–86.Google Scholar
- 13.Han, S., & Shin, J.-A. (2017). Teaching Google search techniques in an L2 academic writing context. Language, Learning and Technology, 21(3), 172–194.Google Scholar
- 15.Jones, R. H., Chik, A., & Hafner, C. A. (Eds.). (2015). Discourse and digital practices: doing discourse analysis in the digital age. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- 18.Le, Q. V., & Schuster, M. (2016). A neural network for machine translation, at production scale. Google AI Blog. https://research.googleblog.com/2016/09/a-neural-network-for-machine.html. Accessed 1 Nov 2018.
- 21.Tsai, S. C. (2018a). Using Google Translate in EFL drafts: a preliminary investigation. Computer Assisted Language Learning. Manuscript accepted for publication.Google Scholar
- 22.Tsai, S. C. (2018b). A preliminary study of Google Translate implemented into EFL writing: effectiveness and student perceptions. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
- 23.Tullock, B. D., & Fernandez-Villanueva, M. (2013). The role of previously learned languages in the thought processes of multilingual writers at the Deutsche Schule Barcelona. Research in the Teaching of English, 47(4), 420–441.Google Scholar
- 26.West, M. (1953). A general service list of English words. London: Longman, Green & Co..Google Scholar