English Teaching & Learning

, Volume 42, Issue 3–4, pp 247–271 | Cite as

Teacher Development or Teacher Training? An Exploration of Issues Reflected on by CELTA Candidates

  • Lee MackenzieEmail author
Original Paper


The current study aimed to investigate whether the intensive Certificate in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (CELTA), which certifies teachers of English as a Foreign Language (EFL), is better viewed as a teacher development or a teacher training course. Qualitative content analysis was carried out on the written reflective assignments of CELTA course participants on several courses where the researcher worked as a tutor. The data was subsequently triangulated using semi-structured qualitative interviews. From these data, four main themes emerged as significant: Teacher Learning, General Pedagogic Knowledge, Teaching Skills and Teaching Language, and the Learner Element. A closer analysis of the categories within these themes reveals a tension between a view of teacher development as “training” and a view of teacher development as “education”. To ensure that the course places a greater emphasis on teacher development, CELTA tutors can encourage less focus on the teaching techniques acquired during the course and more focus on the appropriacy of such techniques with particular classes and in certain contexts by redesigning the reflective prompts which form the basis of the written reflection assignment on the course, and by modelling reflective practice throughout the course.


CELTA Reflection Reflective teaching Teacher development Teacher education Teacher training 


本研究主旨在調查以密集教導說他國語言者的英語教學能力證照 (CELTA),來核發給教授英語為外語的教師合格證書,此證照是否更被視為一門教師發展或培訓的課程。藉由在以作者為導師身份於此證照(CELTA)課程中,質化內容分析將執行在此課程參加者的書面反思作業上。收集的資料隨後以半結構式的質化訪談來進行三角驗證法。結果研究顯示,從資料分析當中,浮現出四個具有意義重要性的主題:「教師學習、一般教育知識、教學技巧與教學語言、學習者要素」。更進一步分析在這些主題中的分類,其結果顯示在視教師發展的觀點為「培訓」和「教育」之間,存在著緊張關係。為了確保此證照課程更著重在於教師發展,藉由重新設計反思提問機制,來形成書面反思作業的基礎,並在課堂間進行模擬反思訓練,此證照課程的導師鼓勵減少聚焦在課程間教學技巧的獲得,而將更著重在同樣的教學技巧,運用在特定課程或在某些情境中的適當性。


教導說他國語言者的英語教學能力證照 反思 反思教學 教師發展 教師教育 教師培訓 



Many thanks to all my research participants, who have all embarked on their own reflective journeys in different contexts and settings, without whom this research would not have been possible. I would like to express thanks to Helen Donaghue for feedback on a draft version of this paper, and her continued support. I would also like to thank the anonymous reviewers whose comments significantly improved this paper.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The author states that there is no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© National Taiwan Normal University 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Instituto de IdiomasUniversidad del NorteBarranquillaColombia

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