Hydraulic Resistance of River Ice Jams
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The hydraulic resistance of river ice jams consists of the resistance due to the seepage flow through the jam and the resistance due to the shear stress on the undersurface of the jam. Existing empirical formulations attributed the entire jam resistance to the undersurface resistance of the jam, but relate the jam resistance to jam thickness with little theoretical basis. Based on the analysis of the seepage flow resistance and the flow resistance of the undersurface of the jam, it is shown that the resistance due to the seepage flow is a dominating part of the jam resistance, except for the portion of the jam where the thickness is very thin. This analysis also showed that the total jam resistance can be approximated by a linear function of the jam thickness or the ratio of jam thickness to the flow depth under the jam.
Key wordsriver ice hydraulic resistance ice jam friction factor Manning’s coefficient
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This study was conducted during the first author’s visits at Nanyang Technological University and Clarkson University under the support of Tsinghua University and Clarkson University.
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