Colletotrichum species associated with mango (Mangifera indica L.) stem-end rot

  • Lim Li
  • Masratul Hawa Mohd
  • Latiffah ZakariaEmail author
Short Communication


A symptom of stem-end rot was observed on fruits of mango cv. Falan in a hypermarket in Penang Island, Malaysia. Colletotrichum asianum and C. siamense were isolated from the diseased fruits. Identification of fungi was based on morphology and on ITS, GADPH and ACT gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. A pathogenicity test was conducted on three cultivars of mango (Chok Anan, Falan and Waterlily), on wounded and unwounded fruits. Both Colletotrichum species caused rotting symptoms on wounded and unwounded fruits of all cultivars. Both species were re-isolated from the diseased fruits, thereby fulfilling Koch’s postulates. This is the first report of C. asianum and C. siamense associated with mango stem-end rot in Malaysia.


Colletotrichum asianum Colletotrichum siamense Stem-end rot ITS GADPH ACT 


Funding information

This work was supported by the USM Bridging grant (304/PBIOLOGI/6316028).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and animal rights

This research does not include any animal and/or human trials.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


  1. Carbone I, Kohn LM (1999) A method for designing primer sets for speciation studies in filamentous ascomycetes. Mycologia 91:553–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. FAOSTAT. (2017). United Nation Food and Agriculture Organization, Corporate Statistical Database Production of mangoes, mangosteens, and guavas in 2017Google Scholar
  3. Fitzell RD, Peak CM (1984) The epidemiology of anthracnose disease of mango: inoculum sources, spore production and dispersal. Ann Appl Biol 104:53–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Freeman S, Katan T, Shabi E (1998) Characterization of Colletotrichum species responsible for anthracnose diseases of various fruits. Plant Dis 82:596–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. James RS, Ray J, Tan YP, Shivas RG (2014) Colletotrichum siamense, C. theobromicola, and C. queenslandicum from several plant species and the identification of C. asianum in the Northern Territory, Australia. Australas. Plant Disease Notes 9:138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Jayasinghe CK, Fernando THPS (2009) First report of Colletotrichum acutatum on Mangifera indica in Sri Lanka. Ceylon Journal of Science (Biological Sciences) 38:31–34Google Scholar
  7. Johnson GI (2008) Status of mango postharvest disease management R & D: options and solutions for the Australian mango industry. Horticulture Australia Final report for project MG08017:1–130Google Scholar
  8. Johnson GI, Sangchote SA, Cooke AW (1990) The control of stem end rot (Dothiorella dominicana) and other postharvest diseases of mango cv. Kensington pride during short and long-term storage. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad) 67:183–187Google Scholar
  9. Johnson GI, Mead AJ, Cooke AW, Dean JR (1992) Mango stem end rot pathogens - fruit infection by endophytic colonisation of the inflorescence and pedicel. Ann Appl Biol 120:225–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ko Y, Liu C-Y, Chen CY, Maruthasalam S, Lin CH (2009) First report of stem-end rot of mango caused by Phomopsis mangiferae in Taiwan. Plant Dis 93:764–764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Krishnapillai NW, Wijeratnam RS (2014) First report of Colletotrichum asianum causing anthracnose on Willard mangoes in Sri Lanka. New Disease Reports 29:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kumar S, Stecher G, Tamura K (2016) MEGA7: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 7.0 for bigger datasets. Mol Biol Evol 33:1870–1874CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Liu LP, Shu J, Zhang L, Hu R, Chen CQ, Yang LN, Liu YN, Yu L, Wang X, Li Y, Gao J, Hsiang T (2017) First report of post-harvest anthracnose on mango (Mangifera indica) caused by Colletotrichum siamense in China. Plant Dis 101(5):833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Marques MW, Lima NB, Morais JR, Michereff MA, Phillips AJL, Câmara MPS (2013) Botryosphaeria, Neofusicoccum, Neoscytalidium and Pseudofusicoccum species associated with mango in Brazil. Fungal Divers 61:195–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mo J, Zhao G, Li Q, Solangi GS, Tang L, Guo T, Huang S, Hsiang T (2018) Identification and characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with mango anthracnose in Guangxi, China. Plant Dis 102:1283–1289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Nelson SC (2008). Mango anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides). Plant Disease –PD-48, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, Cooperative Extension Service/CTAHR, University of Hawai‘i at Mänoa, Honolulu, Hawai‘iGoogle Scholar
  17. Pardo-De la Hoz CJ, Calderón C, Rincón AM, Cárdenas M, Danies G, López-Kleine L, Restrepo S, Jiménez P (2016) Species from the Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum boninense and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides species complexes associated with tree tomato and mango crops in Colombia. Plant Pathol 65:227–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Prihastuti H, Cai L, Chen H, McKenzie EHC, Hyde KD (2009) Characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with coffee berries in northern Thailand. Fungal Divers 39:89–109Google Scholar
  19. Sakalidis ML, Ray JD, Lanoiselet V, Hardy GES, Burgess TI (2011) Pathogenic Botryosphaeriaceae associated with Mangifera indica in the Kimberley region ofWestern Australia. Eur J Plant Pathol 130:379–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sharma G, Gryzenhout M, Hyde KD, Pinnaka AK, Shenoy BD (2015) First report of Colletotrichum asianum causing mango anthracnose in South Africa. Disease Notes 99:725Google Scholar
  21. Slippers B, Johnson GI, Crous PW, Coutinho TA, Wingfield B, Wingfield MJ (2005) Phylogenetic and morphological re-evolution of the Botryosphaeria species causing diseases of Mangifera indica. Mycologia 97:99–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Templeton MD, Rikkerink EHA, Solon SL, Crowhurst RN (1992) Cloning and molecular characterization of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase encoding gene and cDNA from the plant pathogenic fungus Glomerella cingulata. Gene 122:225–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Twizeyimana M, Förster H, McDonald V, Wang DH, Adaskaveg JE, Eskalen A (2013) Identification and pathogenicity of fungal pathogens associated with stem-end rot of avocado in California. Plant Dis 97:1580–1584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Vieira, W. A. S, Michereff, S. J., Morais, M. A. Jr. de Hyde, K. D. and Câmara, M. P., 2014. Endophytic species of Colletotrichum associated with mango in northeastern Brazil. Fungal Divers 67 (10) : 181–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Weir BS, Johnston PR, Damm U (2012) The Colletotrichum gloeosporioides species complex. Stud Mycol 73:115–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. White TJ, Bruns T, Lee S, Taylor J (1990) Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: Innis MA, Gelfand DH, Sninsky JJ, White TJ (eds) PCR protocols: a guide to methods and applications. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 315–322Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Società Italiana di Patologia Vegetale (S.I.Pa.V.) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Biological SciencesUniversiti Sains MalaysiaPenangMalaysia

Personalised recommendations