Advertisement

Survey and conventional management methods of bacterial wilt disease in open fields and greenhouses in Tanzania

  • Agatha AloyceEmail author
  • Patrick Alois Ndakidemi
  • Ernest Rashid Mbega
Original Article
  • 5 Downloads

Abstract

A study was conducted from January to February 2018 to determine bacterial wilt disease (BWD) incidence and severity in open-field and greenhouse environments in twelve tomato growing districts in Tanzania. About 220 farmers were interviewed to assess their knowledge on BWD by using a semi structured questionnaire. Results indicated significant (p < 0.05) difference of BWD incidence and severity among districts. Similarly, BWD incidence and severity were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in greenhouses than in the open field environments implying that BWD is a major challenge in tomato under greenhouse than in open-field environments. Most of the farmers were not certain about BWD symptomology and management. Majority (>80% of 220 respondents) of farmers could not identify sources of BWD in environment and do not adhere to sanitation measures recommended for greenhouse tomato production. 90% of the interviewed famers ventured into greenhouse tomato production by imitating from neighbors without technical guidance. To manage BWD, majority (70%) of farmers use chemicals which they reported as ineffective, 13% use botanical, 10% do crop rotation which was reported to be not practical because of land scarcity and long time that Ralstonia solanacearum can survive. Rest (7%) of farmers do not use any BWD management measure. There was no report of either use of disease resistant cultivars or biological control as a strategy for BWD management in the study area. There is therefore need to develop techniques for farmers to manage the BWD by exploring promising options such as use of effective botanical extracts.

Keywords

Ralstonia solanacearum Soil –borne Incidence Severity 

Notes

Funding

This study was funded by the German Academic Exchange Service Program (DAAD) through the In-country/In-Region Scholarship Programme Tanzania 2016 (grant number 91637162) and the Centre for Research, Agriculture Advancement, Teaching Excellence and Sustainability (CREATES) in Food and Nutrition Security (grant number 02090107-048-301-4001-P044-J01S01-C42) of the Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology (NM-AIST) for providing funds for this work.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in study involving human participants, farmers in this respect were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and national research committee.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual farmers included in the study.

References

  1. Agrios GN (2005) Introduction to plant pathology, 5th edn. Elsevier Academic Press Publication, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen A, Howard J, Jamison A, Jayne T, Kondo M, Snyder J, Yeboah F (2016) Agri-food Youth Employment and Engagement Study (AGYEES). Michigan State University: East Lansing, MI, USA. http://www.isp.msu.edu/files/8114/6738/2393/AgYees. Accessed 25 April 2018
  3. Aloyce A (2013) Detection of Pathological Isolates of Stem rust from Selected Wheat Fields and Varietal Reactions in Tanzania. Thesis, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, TanzaniaGoogle Scholar
  4. Aloyce A, Ndakidemi PA, Mbega ER (2017) Identification and management challenges associated with Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith), causal agent of BWD of tomato in sub-Saharan Africa. Pak J Biol Sci 20:530–542Google Scholar
  5. Alvarez B, Lopez MM, Biosca EG (2008) Survival strategies and pathogenicity of Ralstonia solanacearum Phylotype II subjected to prolonged starvation in environmental water microcosms. J Microbiol 154:3590–3598Google Scholar
  6. Alvarez B, Elena GB, María ML (2010) On the life of Ralstonia solanacearum, a destructive bacterial plant pathogen. Current research technology and education topics in applied microbiology and microbial biotechnology, Valencia, Spain, pp 267 – 279Google Scholar
  7. Castilla N, Hernández J (2007) Greenhouse technological packages for high-quality crop production. Acta Horticulture 761:285–297Google Scholar
  8. Elphinstone JG (2009) The current bacterial wilt situation: a global overview. In: Allen C, Prior P, Hayward AC (eds) Bacterial wilt disease and the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex. American Phytopathological Society Press, St Paul, pp 9–28Google Scholar
  9. Fegan M, Prior P (2005) How complex is the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex? In: Allen CP, Prior P, Hayward AC (eds) BWD and the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex. American Phytopathological Society Press, St. Paul ISBN: 0890543291, pp 449–461Google Scholar
  10. Gaofei J, Zhong W, Jin X, Huilan C, Yong Z, Xiaoman S, Alberto PM, Wei D, Boshou L (2017) Bacterial wilt in China: history, current status, and future perspectives. Front Plant Sci,  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.01549. Accessed 11 April 2018
  11. Hayward AC (1991) Biology and epidemiology of bacterial wilt caused by Pseudomonas solanacearum. Annual review of phytopathology, 29(1):65-87Google Scholar
  12. Heuvelink E, Bakker M, Marcelis LFM, Raaphorst M (2008) Climate and yield in a closed greenhouse. Acta Hortic 801:1083–1092Google Scholar
  13. Hyakumachi MM, Nishimura T, Arakawa S, Asano S, Yoshida ST, Takahashi H (2013) Bacillus thuringiensis suppresses BWD caused by Ralstonia solanacearum with systemic induction of defense related gene expression in tomato. Microbes Environ 28:128–134Google Scholar
  14. Inoue Y, Nakaho K (2014) Sensitive quantitative detection of Ralstonia solanacearum in soil by the Most Probable Number-Polymerase Chain Reaction (MPN-PCR) method. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 98:4169–4177Google Scholar
  15. Jonathan PK, Frank JL, Dilip RP (2014) The Influence of Temperature on Bacterial Wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum Smith), especially as it Pertains to Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) from a Historical Perspective. North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695–7616, USAGoogle Scholar
  16. Katafiire M, Adipala E, Lemaga B, Olanya M, El-Bedewy R, Ewell P (2005) Management of bacterial wilt of potato using one-season rotation crops in southwestern Uganda. Bacterial Wilt Disease and the Ralstonia solanacearum Species Complex. American Phytopathological Society, Press, St. Paul, MN., 197-204Google Scholar
  17. Kelman A (1953) The bacterial wilt caused by Pseudomonas solanacearum. A literature review and bibliography. North Carolina Agric Exp Stn Tech Bull 99:1194Google Scholar
  18. Kinyua ZM, Miller SA, Ashlina C, Nagendra S (2014) Bacterial wilt disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum: standard operating procedure for use in diagnostic laboratories. Version: EA-SOP-RS1, Nairobi, KenyaGoogle Scholar
  19. Mbega ER, Mortensen CN, Mabagala RB, Wulff EG (2012) The effect of plant extracts as seed treatments to control bacterial leaf spot of tomato in Tanzania. J Gen Plant Pathol 78:277–286Google Scholar
  20. Mrema EJ, Ngowi AV, Kishinhi SS, Mamuya SH (2017) Pesticide exposure and health problems among female horticulture workers in Tanzania. Environ Health Insights 11:1178630217715237Google Scholar
  21. Mwaniki PK, Wagara IN, Birech R, Kinyua ZM, Schulte-Geldermann E, Freyer B (2017) Impact of crop rotation sequences on potato in fields inoculated with bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. Afr J Agric Res 12(14):1226–1235Google Scholar
  22. Ndakidemi PA (2007) Agronomic and economic potential of Tughutu (Vernoniasubligera O. Hoffn) and Minjingu phosphate rock as alterative P sources for bean growers. Pedosphere 17(6):732–738Google Scholar
  23. Ngowi AVF, Mbise TJ, Ijani ASM, London L, Ajayi OC (2007) Smallholder vegetable farmers in northern Tanzania: pesticides use practices, perceptions, cost and health effects. Crop Prot 26(11):1617–1624Google Scholar
  24. Opdam JJG, Schoonderbeek GG, Heller EMB (2005) Closed greenhouse: a starting point for sustainable entrepreneurship in horticulture. Acta Hortic 691:517–524Google Scholar
  25. Pradhanang PM, Ji P, Momol MT, Olson SM, Mayfield JL, Jones JB (2005) Application of acibenzolar-S-methyl enhances host resistance in tomato against Ralstonia solanacearum. Plant Dis 89(9):989–993Google Scholar
  26. Prior P, Ailloud F, Dalsing BL, Remenant B, Sanchez B, Allen C (2016) Genomic and proteomic evidence supporting the division of the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum into three species. BMC Genomics 17:90Google Scholar
  27. Qian T, Dieleman JA, Elings A, van Kooten O (2011) Comparison of climate and production in closed, semi-closed and open greenhouses. Acta Hortic 893:807–814Google Scholar
  28. Radhi MZA, Adam MB, Saud HM, Hamid MN, Tony PSH, Tan GH (2016) Efficacy of smart fertilizer for combating BWD in Solanum lycopersicum. Direct Res J Agric Food Sci 4(7):137–143Google Scholar
  29. Remenant B, Coupat-Goutaland B, Guidot A, Cellier G, Wicker E, Allen C, Fegan M, Pruvost O, Elbaz M, Calteau A, Salvignol G (2010) Genomes of three tomato pathogens within the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex reveal significant evolutionary divergence. BMC Genomics 11(1):379Google Scholar
  30. Saile E, McGarveyJA SMA, Denny TP (1997) Role of extracellular polysaccharide and Endoglucanase in root invasion and colonization of tomato plants by Ralstonia solanacearum. Phytopathology 87:1264–1271Google Scholar
  31. Sang GK, On-Sook H, Na-Young R, Ho-Cheol K, Ju-Hee R, Jung SS, Kyoung-Yul R, Sok-Young L, Hyung JB (2016) Evaluation of resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum in tomato genetic resources at seedling stage. Plant Pathol J 32(1):58–64Google Scholar
  32. Shamayeeta S, Sujata C (2016) Bacterial wilt and its management. Curr Sci 110(8):1439–1445 India. www.agdia.com. Accessed 10 May 2018Google Scholar
  33. Singh D, Sinha S, Yadav DK, Chadhary G (2014) Detection of Ralstonia solanacearum from asymptomatic tomato plants, irrigation water, and soil through non-selective enrichment medium with hrp gene-based bio-PCR. Curr Microbiol 69(2):127–134Google Scholar
  34. Tanny J, Teitel M, Barak M, Esquira Y, Amir R (2008) The effect of height on screen-house microclimate. Acta Hortic 801:107–114Google Scholar
  35. Vasse J, Frey P, Trigalet A (1995) Microscopic studies of intercellular infection and Protoxylem invasion of tomato roots by Pseudomonas solanacearum. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 8(2):241–251Google Scholar
  36. VonZabeltitz C (2011) Heating. In: Integrated greenhouse systems for mild climates. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 285–311 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/283936181. Accessed 15 May 2018Google Scholar
  37. Wei Z, Huang J, Yang T, Jousset A, Xu Y, Shen Q (2017) Seasonal variation in the bio-control efficiency of bacterial wilt is driven by temperature-mediated changes in bacterial competitive interactions. J Appl Ecol:1365–2664Google Scholar
  38. Yang W, Xu Q, Liu HX, Wang YP, Wanga YM, Yang HT, Guo JH (2012) Evaluation of biological control agents against Ralstonia wilt on ginger. Biol Control 62:144–151Google Scholar
  39. Yuliar YAN, Koki T (2015) Recent trends in control methods for bacterial wilt diseases caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. J Microbes Environ 30(1):1–11Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Società Italiana di Patologia Vegetale (S.I.Pa.V.) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Agatha Aloyce
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Patrick Alois Ndakidemi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ernest Rashid Mbega
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Sustainable Agriculture and Biodiversity Ecosystem Management, School of Life Sciences and BioengineeringNelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology (NM-AIST)ArushaTanzania
  2. 2.Centre for Research, Agriculture Advancement, Teaching Excellence and Sustainability (CREATES) in Food and Nutrition SecurityNelson Mandela African Institution of Science and TechnologyArushaTanzania

Personalised recommendations