Dynamic interactions between plant viruses and their hosts for symptom development
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As obligate intracellular parasites, plant viruses catalyze drastic alterations in the cellular physiology of host cells in order to support their own replication. This disruption often, but not always, manifests macroscopically as disease symptoms. The search for what distinguishes symptom-inducing virus strains from their asymptomatic counterparts has long been a central component of plant virology research. A consistent through line has been the conclusion that symptoms arise from specific interactions between viral and host components. The identification of viral components responsible for symptom development (i.e. viral symptom determinants) followed by the identification and characterization of interactions with host components has led to concrete mechanistic linkages between the viral and host interactants for some symptoms. The rise of systems biology approaches (e.g. transcriptomics and proteomics) has allowed host responses to be described in greater detail, providing a broad view of the molecular events of plant virus infections. Here, we review the most recent literature describing plant virus symptom determinants. This includes studies detailing specific virus-host interactions which lead to symptom development, as well as those which utilize systems biology approaches such as transcriptomics to probe the molecular changes underlying the development of virus symptoms. Emerging trends, and how they might inform the future of plant virus symptomatology research, are discussed.
KeywordsPlant virus Symptoms Symptom determinant Transcriptomics Chimeras Temperature Environment Reverse genetics Virus-host interactions
Thanks are due to E.J. Cieniewicz for her helpful and encouraging discussions during the preparation of this review and to the library services staff of the Albert. R. Mann Library of Cornell University for their guidance in literature database search strategies.
This work was funded by a Schmittau-Novak Integrative Plant Science grant from the Cornell University School of Integrative Plant Science, the AFRI NIFA Fellowships Grant Program [grant no. 2018–67011-28107/project accession no. 1015454] from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture, Federal Capacity Funds, and Cornell AgriTech’s Research Venture Funds.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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