Molecular identification of tomato brown rugose fruit virus in tomato in Palestine

  • Raed AlkowniEmail author
  • Osama Alabdallah
  • Ziad Fadda
Short Communication


Tomato, a top cash crop, is infected by a number of viruses that cause drastic yield losses. Recently an unusual viral syndrome that resembled somewhat that induced by tobacco mosaic virus has been observed in Northern Palestine. The most affected tomatoes were of cultivars ‘Ikram’ and ‘Azmeer’. A study aimed at revealing the cause of the disease, identified the presence of an apparently undescribed tobamovirus. The virus genome was entirely sequenced and shown to be composed of 6391 nucleotides. Sequence analysis indicated that this virus was an isolate of tomato brown rugose fruit virus (TBRFV). This is the first time TBRFV was detected in Palestine on tomatoes and the name tomato brown rugose fruit virus-Palestinian isolate (TBRFV-Ps) is suggested. Molecular tools were developed for specific detection of the virus and sanitary actions to protect tomato production from TBRFV were recommended.


Virus Tomato Tobamovirus TBRFV Phylogenetic analysis 



Authors wish to thank the Science Deanship of An-Najah National University and National Agriculture Research Center for their support of the study. The financial support of An-Najah National University to undertake this work under grant number [ANNU-1718-So029] is also duly acknowledged.


This study was funded by the Science Deanship of An-Najah National University under grant number [ANNU-1718-So029].

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Conflict of interest

Corresponding Author has received research grants from An-Najah National University; in collaboration with co-authors from National Agricultural Research Center. Authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Alkowni R (2017) Phytoviruses in Palestine: status and future perspectives. An - Najah University. Journal for Research (N Sc) 31(1):11–34Google Scholar
  2. Alkowni R and Srouji F (ed) (2009) Food security and viral diseases (in fruit trees). Palestine economic policy research institute (MAS). Ramallah-PalestineGoogle Scholar
  3. Ambros S, Martinez F, Ivars P, Hernandez C, de la Iglesia F, Elena SF (2016) Molecular and biological characterization of an isolate of Tomato mottle mosaic virus (ToMMV) infecting tomato and other experimental hosts in a greenhouse in Valencia, Spain. bioRxiv 063255;
  4. Amro S, Alkowni R, Hamdan A (2014) Molecular and biological tools for assessment of TYLCV resistant tomato cultivars commercially grown in southern Palestine. An-Najah University Journal for Research (N Sc) 28:85–108Google Scholar
  5. Anfoka GH, Abhary M, Nakhla MK (2005) Molecular identification of species of the tomato yellow leaf curl virus complex in Jordan. J Plant Pathol 87(1):65–70Google Scholar
  6. Dorais M, Papadopoulos A, Gosselin A (2001) Greenhouse tomato fruit quality. Hortic Rev 26:239–319Google Scholar
  7. FAO (2017) Integrated pest management of major pests and diseases in Eastern Europe and the Caucasus. Budapest: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United NationsGoogle Scholar
  8. George B, Kaur C, Khurdiya D, Kapoor H (2004) Antioxidants in tomato (Lycopersium esculentum) as a function of genotype. Food Chem 84(1):45–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Goujon M, McWilliam H, Li W, Valentin F, Squizzato S, Paern J, Lopez R (2010) A new bioinformatics analysis tools framework at EMBL-EBI. Nucleic Acids Res 38(Web server):W695–W699. CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Hanssen IM, Lapidot M (2012) Major tomato viruses in the Mediterranean Basin. In: Loebenstein G, Lecoq H (eds) Advances in Virus Research, vol 84. Academic Press, Cambridge, pp 31–66Google Scholar
  11. Hanssen IM, Lapidot M, Thomma BP (2010) Emerging viral diseases of tomato crops. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 23:539–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Johnson et al (2008) NCBI BLAST: a better web interface. NCBI BLAST: a better web interface. Nucleic Acids Res 36(Web Server issue):W5–W9CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Kimura S, Sinha N (2008) Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum): a model fruit-bearing crop. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.
  14. Kumar S, Udaya Shankar AC, Nayaka SC, Lund OS, Prakash HS (2011) Detection of tobacco mosaic virus and tomato mosaic virus in pepper and tomato by multiplex RT–PCR. Appl Microbiol 53:359–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Li R, Gao S, Fei Z, Ling K-S (2013) Complete genome sequence of a new tobamovirus naturally infecting tomatoes in Mexico. Genome Announc 1(5):e00794±13. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Luria N, Smith E, Reingold V, Bekelman I, Lapidot M, Levin I et al (2017) A new Israeli Tobamovirus isolate infects tomato plants harboring tm-22 resistance genes. PLoS One 12(1):e0170429. CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. McGovern RJ, Elmer WH (2018) Handbook of Florists' Crops Diseases, SpringerGoogle Scholar
  18. Meng B, Martelli GP, Golino DA, Fuchs M (Eds.) (2017) Grapevine viruses: molecular biology. Diagnostics and management. SpringerGoogle Scholar
  19. Morgulis A, Coulouris G, Raytselis Y, Madden TL, Agarwala R, Schäffer AA (2008) Database indexing for production mega BLAST searches. Bioinformatics 24:1757–1764CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Salem NM, Mansour A, Badwan H (2012) Identification and partial characterization of Tomato spotted wilt virus on lettuce in Jordan. J Plant Pathol 94:431–435Google Scholar
  21. Salem N, Mansour A, Ciuffo M, Falk B, Turina M (2016) A new tobamovirus infecting tomato crops in Jordan. Arch Virol 161(2):503–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sievers F, Wilm A, Dineen D, Gibson TJ, Karplus K, Li W, Lopez R, McWilliam H, Remmert M, Söding J, Thompson JD, Higgins DG (2011) Fast, scalable generation of high-quality protein multiple sequence alignments using Clustal omega. Mol Syst Biol 7:539. CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Turina M, Geraats BPJ, Ciuffo M (2016) First report of tomato mottle mosaic virus in tomato crops in Israel. New Dis Rep 33:1. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Zhang Z, Schwartz S, Wagner L, Miller W (2000) A greedy algorithm for aligning DNA sequences. J Comput Biol 7(1–2):203–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Società Italiana di Patologia Vegetale (S.I.Pa.V.) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Biology and Biotechnology Department, Faculty of ScienceAn-Najah National UniversityNablusIsrael
  2. 2.National Agricultural Research Center (NARC), Ministry of AgricultureNablusIsrael

Personalised recommendations