Advertisement

Advanced Composites and Hybrid Materials

, Volume 1, Issue 4, pp 705–721 | Cite as

A treatise on multiscale glass fiber epoxy matrix composites containing graphene nanoplatelets

  • Usama ZaheerEmail author
  • Aqeel A. Khurram
  • Tayyab Subhani
Original Research
  • 228 Downloads

Abstract

Multiscale composites of epoxy matrix containing glass fibers and graphene nanoplatelets were prepared to investigate the effect of incorporating nanoplatelets upon the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of the composites. Ozone-functionalized nanoplatelets were uniformly mixed in epoxy before incorporating glass fabric in the composites and processed through vacuum molding. Three different loadings of nanoplatelets were used, i.e., 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 wt%, while the fraction of glass fibers was kept constant at ~ 60 wt%. The dispersion of nanoplatelets was witnessed using scanning electron microscopy, while mechanical characterization was performed using tensile, compression, flexural, and shear tests. Homogeneous dispersion of nanoplatelets increased mechanical properties of the composites, i.e., tensile, compression, flexural, and shear strengths up to 75, 30, 23, and 36%, respectively; similar trend in moduli values was observed, i.e., 116, 126, and 38%, respectively. The increased bonding between glass fibers and epoxy matrix due to nanoplatelets was found to be the possible reason of the increase in mechanical performance of multiscale composites along with the generation of a nanocomposite of GNP-reinforced epoxy to act as the matrix.

Graphical abstract

Keywords

Multiscale composite Graphene nanoplatelets Epoxy Functionalization Mechanical properties 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Authors highly acknowledge Mr. Tahir Khan for his support to complete microstructural analysis in this work.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Authors of the present manuscript certify that they do not have any affiliations with any organization with any financial or non-financial interests. Authors report no conflict of interest for material explained in the manuscript.

References

  1. 1.
    Pedrazzoli D, Pegoretti A, Kalaitzidou K (2015) Synergistic effect of graphite nanoplatelets and glass fibers in polypropylene composites. J Appl Polym Sci 132(12):625–638Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Razavi SM, Dehghanpour N, Ahmadi SJ, Rajabi Hamaneh M (2015) Thermal, mechanical, and corrosion resistance properties of vinyl ester/clay nanocomposites for the matrix of carbon fiber-reinforced composites exposed to electron beam. J Appl Polym Sci 132(33):1516–1535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sathishkumar T, Satheeshkumar S, Naveen J (2014) Glass fiber-reinforced polymer composites—a review. J Reinf Plast Compos 33(13):1258–1275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Al-Saleh MH, Sundararaj U (2011) Review of the mechanical properties of carbon nanofiber/polymer composites. Compos A: Appl Sci Manuf 42(12):2126–2142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Holmes G, Rice K, Snyder C (2006) Ballistic fibers: a review of the thermal, ultraviolet and hydrolytic stability of the benzoxazole ring structure. J Mater Sci 41(13):4105–4116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Subhani T, Shaukat B, Ali N, Khurram AA (2017) Toward improved mechanical performance of multiscale carbon fiber and carbon nanotube epoxy composites. Polym Compos 38(8):1519–1528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gu H, Ma C, Liang C, Meng X, Gu J, Guo Z (2017) A low loading of grafted thermoplastic polystyrene strengthens and toughens transparent epoxy composites. J Mater Chem C 5(17):4275–4285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Li J, Sham ML, Kim J-K, Marom G (2007) Morphology and properties of UV/ozone treated graphite nanoplatelet/epoxy nanocomposites. Compos Sci Technol 67(2):296–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sham ML, Li J, Ma PC, Kim J-K (2009) Cleaning and functionalization of polymer surfaces and nanoscale carbon fillers by UV/ozone treatment: a review. J Compos Mater 43(14):1537–1564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chandrasekaran S, Seidel C, Schulte K (2013) Preparation and characterization of graphite nano-platelet (GNP)/epoxy nano-composite: mechanical, electrical and thermal properties. Eur Polym J 49(12):3878–3888CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ma H-l, Jia Z, K-t L, Leng J, Hui D (2016) Impact properties of glass fiber/epoxy composites at cryogenic environment. Compos Part B 92:210–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Petersen MR, Chen A, Roll M, Jung S, Yossef M (2015) Mechanical properties of fire-retardant glass fiber-reinforced polymer materials with alumina tri-hydrate filler. Compos Part B 78:109–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bozkurt E, Kaya E, Tanoğlu M (2007) Mechanical and thermal behavior of non-crimp glass fiber reinforced layered clay/epoxy nanocomposites. Compos Sci Technol 67(15):3394–3403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Moriche R, Sánchez M, Jiménez-Suárez A, Prolongo S, Ureña A (2016) Electrically conductive functionalized-GNP/epoxy based composites: from nanocomposite to multiscale glass fibre composite material. Compos Part B 98:49–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Li J, Wu Z, Huang C, Li L (2014) Multiscale carbon nanotube-woven glass fiber reinforced cyanate ester/epoxy composites for enhanced mechanical and thermal properties. Compos Sci Technol 104:81–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gu J, Liang C, Zhao X, Gan B, Qiu H, Guo Y, Yang X, Zhang Q, Wang D-Y (2017) Highly thermally conductive flame-retardant epoxy nanocomposites with reduced ignitability and excellent electrical conductivities. Compos Sci Technol 139:83–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yang X, Guo Y, Luo X, Zheng N, Ma T, Tan J, Li C, Zhang Q, Gu J (2018) Self-healing, recoverable epoxy elastomers and their composites with desirable thermal conductivities by incorporating BN fillers via in-situ polymerization. Compos Sci Technol 164:59–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rahmanian S, Suraya A, Roshanravan B, Othman R, Nasser A, Zahari R, Zainudin E (2015) The influence of multiscale fillers on the rheological and mechanical properties of carbon-nanotube–silica-reinforced epoxy composite. Mater Des 88:227–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Peng K, Wan Y-J, Ren D-Y, Zeng Q-W, Tang L-C (2014) Scalable preparation of multiscale carbon nanotube/glass fiber reinforcements and their application in polymer composites. Fibers and Polymers 15(6):1242–1250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Subhani T, Latif M, Ahmad I, Rakha SA, Ali N, Khurram AA (2015) Mechanical performance of epoxy matrix hybrid nanocomposites containing carbon nanotubes and nanodiamonds. Mater Des 87:436–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Boostani AF, Tahamtan S, Jiang Z, Wei D, Yazdani S, Khosroshahi RA, Mousavian RT, Xu J, Zhang X, Gong D (2015) Enhanced tensile properties of aluminium matrix composites reinforced with graphene encapsulated SiC nanoparticles. Compos A: Appl Sci Manuf 68:155–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Li W, Dichiara A, Zha J, Su Z, Bai J (2014) On improvement of mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties of glass fabric/epoxy composites by incorporating CNT–Al2O3 hybrids. Compos Sci Technol 103:36–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Pathak AK, Borah M, Gupta A, Yokozeki T, Dhakate SR (2016) Improved mechanical properties of carbon fiber/graphene oxide-epoxy hybrid composites. Compos Sci Technol 135:28–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hu K, Kulkarni DD, Choi I, Tsukruk VV (2014) Graphene-polymer nanocomposites for structural and functional applications. Prog Polym Sci 39(11):1934–1972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Van Thanh D, Van Thien N, Thang BH, Van Chuc N, Hong NM, Trang BT, Dai Lam T, Huyen DTT, Hong PN, Minh PN (2016) A highly efficient and facile approach for fabricating graphite nanoplatelets. J Electron Mater 45(5):2522–2528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kamar NT, Hossain MM, Khomenko A, Haq M, Drzal LT, Loos A (2015) Interlaminar reinforcement of glass fiber/epoxy composites with graphene nanoplatelets. Compos A: Appl Sci Manuf 70:82–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mohamed M, Taheri F (2017) Influence of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) on mode I fracture toughness of an epoxy adhesive under thermal fatigue. J Adhes Sci Technol 31(19–20):2105–2123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Shen M-Y, Chang T-Y, Hsieh T-H, Li Y-L, Chiang C-L, Yang H, Yip M-C (2013) Mechanical properties and tensile fatigue of graphene nanoplatelets reinforced polymer nanocomposites. J Nanomater 2013:1Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jeyranpour F, Alahyarizadeh G, Minuchehr A (2016) The thermo-mechanical properties estimation of fullerene-reinforced resin epoxy composites by molecular dynamics simulation—a comparative study. Polymer 88:9–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Eda G, Chhowalla M (2010) Chemically derived graphene oxide: towards large-area thin-film electronics and optoelectronics. Adv Mater 22(22):2392–2415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Chen W, Yan L, Bangal PR (2010) Preparation of graphene by the rapid and mild thermal reduction of graphene oxide induced by microwaves. Carbon 48(4):1146–1152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Singh V, Joung D, Zhai L, Das S, Khondaker SI, Seal S (2011) Graphene based materials: past, present and future. Prog Mater Sci 56(8):1178–1271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Yakovenko O, Matzui L, Perets Y, Ovsiienko I, Brusylovets O, Vovchenko L, Szroeder P (2016) Effects of dispersion and ultraviolet/ozonolysis functionalization of graphite nanoplatelets on the electrical properties of epoxy nanocomposites. Nanophysics, Nanophotonics, Surface Studies, and Applications. Springer, Cham 20(35):477–491Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chandrasekaran S, Sato N, Tölle F, Mülhaupt R, Fiedler B, Schulte K (2014) Fracture toughness and failure mechanism of graphene based epoxy composites. Compos Sci Technol 97:90–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Tang L-C, Wan Y-J, Yan D, Pei Y-B, Zhao L, Li Y-B, Wu L-B, Jiang J-X, Lai G-Q (2013) The effect of graphene dispersion on the mechanical properties of graphene/epoxy composites. Carbon 60:16–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wang F, Drzal LT, Qin Y, Huang Z (2016) Size effect of graphene nanoplatelets on the morphology and mechanical behavior of glass fiber/epoxy composites. J Mater Sci 51(7):3337–3348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gantayat S, Prusty G, Rout DR, Swain SK (2015) Expanded graphite as a filler for epoxy matrix composites to improve their thermal, mechanical and electrical properties. New Carbon Mater 30(5):432–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ashori A, Rahmani H, Bahrami R (2015) Preparation and characterization of functionalized graphene oxide/carbon fiber/epoxy nanocomposites. Polym Test 48:82–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ahmadi-Moghadam B, Sharafimasooleh M, Shadlou S, Taheri F (2015) Effect of functionalization of graphene nanoplatelets on the mechanical response of graphene/epoxy composites. Mater Des 66:142–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Eksik O, Maiorana A, Spinella S, Krishnamurthy A, Weiss S, Gross RA, Koratkar N (2016) Nanocomposites of a cashew nut shell derived epoxy resin and graphene platelets: from flexible to tough. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 4(3):1715–1721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ni Y, Chen L, Teng K, Shi J, Qian X, Xu Z, Tian X, Hu C, Ma M (2015) Superior mechanical properties of epoxy composites reinforced by 3D interconnected graphene skeleton. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 7(21):11583–11591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Mannov E, Schmutzler H, Chandrasekaran S, Viets C, Buschhorn S, Tölle F, Mülhaupt R, Schulte K (2013) Improvement of compressive strength after impact in fibre reinforced polymer composites by matrix modification with thermally reduced graphene oxide. Compos Sci Technol 87:36–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Shen X-J, Meng L-X, Yan Z-Y, Sun C-J, Ji Y-H, Xiao H-M, Fu S-Y (2015) Improved cryogenic interlaminar shear strength of glass fabric/epoxy composites by graphene oxide. Compos Part B 73:126–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Mohanty A, Srivastava V (2015) Effect of alumina nanoparticles on the enhancement of impact and flexural properties of the short glass/carbon fiber reinforced epoxy based composites. Fibers and Polymers 16(1):188–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Chen J, Zhao D, Jin X, Wang C, Wang D, Ge H (2014) Modifying glass fibers with graphene oxide: towards high-performance polymer composites. Compos Sci Technol 97:41–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Qin W, Vautard F, Drzal LT, Yu J (2015) Mechanical and electrical properties of carbon fiber composites with incorporation of graphene nanoplatelets at the fiber–matrix interphase. Compos Part B 69:335–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Usama Zaheer
    • 1
    Email author
  • Aqeel A. Khurram
    • 2
  • Tayyab Subhani
    • 1
  1. 1.Composite Research Center, Department of Materials Science and EngineeringInstitute of Space TechnologyIslamabadPakistan
  2. 2.Laboratory for Advance Materials Processing, NCP ComplexIslamabadPakistan

Personalised recommendations