Advertisement

Advanced Composites and Hybrid Materials

, Volume 1, Issue 4, pp 809–818 | Cite as

Study of the hydrogenation and re-heating of Co-doped ZnO and In2O3 Nano composites

  • Rana MukherjiEmail author
  • Vishal Mathur
  • Arvind Samariya
  • Manishita Mukherji
Original Research
  • 194 Downloads

Abstract

Nanocomposite samples of zinc oxide (ZnO) and indium oxide (In2O3) doped with Co (at 1.5% molar concentration) are synthesized through conventional solid-state reaction technique. These samples are taken in a quartz tube and placed in reduction furnace for post-annealing in the presence of hydrogen for ~ 10 h at around 550 °C. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) study confirms the formation of hexagonal wurtzite structure for ZnO, Zn0.985CO0.015O and Zn0.985CO0.015O:H samples whereas cubic bixbyite structure for In2O3, (In0.985CO0.015)2O3 and (In0.985CO0.015)2O3:H samples. The magnetization data investigations depict that both undoped ZnO and In2O3 have small negative susceptibilities and exhibit diamagnetic behavior at room temperature. The doping of Co ions induces paramagnetic property in both the samples. Interestingly, the hydrogenated samples Zn0.985CO0.015O:H and (In0.985CO0.015)2O3:H exhibited a perceptible ferromagnetic behavior at 300 K whereas it overturns significantly after long air sintering. An effort has been made to fit the experiential M-H data of hydrogenated samples to the Bound Magnetic Polaron (BMP) model. MATLAB-based simulations have been performed to validate the homogeneity in particle distribution of the samples evinced through SEM micrographs. A multivariate assessment viz. hierarchical cluster analysis is also executed to corroborate and strengthen the experimental findings of magnetic properties.

Graphical abstract

Keywords

Co-doped ZnO Co-doped In2O3 Room-temperature ferromagnetism Hydrogenation 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Torquato RA, Shirsath SE, Kiminami RH, Costa AC (2018) Synthesis and structural, magnetic characterization of nanocrystalline Zn1-xCoxO diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) synthesized by combustion reaction. Ceram Int 44:4126–4131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dietl T, Ohno H (2014) Dilute ferromagnetic semiconductors: physics and spintronic structures. Rev Mod Phys 86:187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Shanker GS, Tandon B, Shibata T, Chattopadhyay S, Nag A (2015) Doping controls plasmonics, electrical conductivity, and carrier-mediated magnetic coupling in Fe and Sn codoped In2O3 nanocrystals: local structure is the key. Chem Mater 27:892–900CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Haq BU, Ahmed R, Shaari A, Ali N, Al-Douri Y, Reshak AH (2016) Comparative study of Fe doped ZnO based diluted and condensed magnetic semiconductors in wurtzite and zinc-blende structures by first-principles calculations. Mat Sci Semicon Proc 43:123–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ou SL, Liu HR, Wang SY, Wuu DS (2016) Co-doped ZnO dilute magnetic semiconductor thin films by pulsed laser deposition: excellent transmittance, low resistivity and high mobility. J Alloys Compd 663:107–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Elilarassi R, Chandrasekaran G (2017) Optical, electrical and ferromagnetic studies of ZnO:Fe diluted magnetic semiconductor nanoparticles for spintronic applications. Spectrochim Acta A 186:120–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gazzali PM, Rajan S, Chandrasekaran G (2018) Enhanced magnetic ordering in V, C codoped hierarchical porous ZnO nanograins. Ceram Int 44:1566–1574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mølholt TE, Gunnlaugsson HP, Johnston K, Mantovan R, Röder J, Adoons V, Gerami AM, Masenda H, Matveyev YA, Ncube M, Unzueta I (2017) Charge states and lattice sites of dilute implanted Sn in ZnO. J Phys Condens Matter 29:155701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mukherji R, Mathur V, Samariya A, Mukherji M (2017) Study of the hydrogenation and re-heating of Co-doped In2O3 based diluted magnetic semiconductors. J Adv Nanomater 2:105–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lu N, Ferguson I (2013) III-nitrides for energy production: photovoltaic and thermoelectric applications. Semicond Sci Tech 28:074023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kucukgok B, Wang B, Melton AG, Lu N, Ferguson IT (2014) Comparison of thermoelectric properties of GaN and ZnO samples. Phys Status Solidi C 11:894–897CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Singh RP, Hudiara IS, Panday S, Rana SB (2016) The effect of Co doping on the structural, optical, and magnetic properties of Fe-doped ZnO nanoparticles. J Supercond Nov Magn 29:819–827CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mukherji R, Mathur V, Samariya A, Mukherji M (2016) A review of transition metal-doped In2O3-based diluted magnetic semiconductors. The IUP Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering 9:16–31Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Liu Z, Yi X, Yu Z, Yuan G, Liu Y, Wang J, Li J, Lu N, Ferguson I, Zhang Y (2016) Impurity resonant states p-type doping in wide-band-gap nitrides. Sci Rep 6:19537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Feng Y, Jiang X, Ghafari E, Kucukgok B, Zhang C, Ferguson I, Lu N (2018) Metal oxides for thermoelectric power generation and beyond. Adv Compos Hybrid Mater 1:114–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ghafari E, Feng Y, Liu Y, Ferguson I, Lu N (2017) Investigating process-structure relations of ZnO nanofiber via electrospinning method. Compos Part B-Eng 1116:40–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fukumura T (2015) Electric-field control of magnetism in ferromagnetic semiconductors. In: Spintronics for next generation innovative devices, 1st edn. Wiley, New York, pp 209–226Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    El Ghoul J, Kraini M, Lemine OM, El Mir L (2015) Sol–gel synthesis, structural, optical and magnetic properties of Co-doped ZnO nanoparticles. J Mater Sci Mater Electron 26:2614–2621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mehraj S, Ansari MS (2015) Structural, electrical and magnetic properties of (Fe, Co) Co-doped SnO2 diluted magnetic semiconductor nanostructures. Physica E Low Dimens Syst Nanostruct 65:84–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kumar S, Tiwari N, Jha SN, Chatterjee S, Bhattacharyya D, Ghosh AK (2016) Structural and optical properties of sol–gel derived Cr-doped ZnO diluted magnetic semiconductor nanocrystals: an EXAFS study to relate the local structure. RSC Adv 6:107816–107828CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Saikia D, Raland RD, Borah JP (2016) Influence of Fe doping on the structural, optical and magnetic properties of ZnS diluted magnetic semiconductor. Physica E Low Dimens Syst Nanostruct 83:56–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Song A, Park HW, Vishwanath SK, Kim J, Baek JY, Ahn KJ, Chung KB (2016) Electronic structure of transparent conducting Mo-doped indium oxide films grown by polymer assisted solution process. Ceram Int 42:14754–14759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sonsupap S, Ponhan W, Wongsaprom K (2016) Synthesis and room-temperature ferromagnetism in Co-doped In2O3 nanoparticles. J Supercond Nov Magn 29:1641–1646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Goktas A, Aslan F, Tumbul A, Gunduz SH (2017) Tuning of structural, optical and dielectric constants by various transition metal doping in ZnO:TM (TM=Mn, Co, Fe) nanostructured thin films: a comparative study. Ceram Int 43:704–713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Riaz S, Bashir M, Raza MA, Mahmood A, Naseem S (2015) Effect of calcination on structural and magnetic properties of Co-doped ZnO nanostructures. IEEE T Magn 51:1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dietl T (2017) Origin of ferromagnetic response in diluted magnetic semiconductors and oxides. J Phys Condens Matter 19(16):165204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Liu C, Yun F, Morkoc H (2005) Ferromagnetism of ZnO and GaN: a review. J Mater Sci Mater Electron 16:555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Varshney P, Srinet G, Kumar R, Sajal V, Sharma SK, Knobel M, Chandra J, Gupta G, Kulriya PK (2012) Room temperature ferromagnetism in sol–gel prepared Co-doped ZnO. Mater Sci Semicond Process 15:314–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Aggarwal N, Vasishth A, Singh B, Singh B (2018) Investigation of room temperature ferromagnetic behaviour in dilute magnetic oxides. Integr Ferroelectr 186:10–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Singhal RK, Samariya A, Xing YT, Kumar S, Dolia SN, Deshpande UP, Shripathi T, Saitovitch EB (2010a) Electronic and magnetic properties of Co-doped ZnO diluted magnetic semiconductor. J Alloys Compd 496:324–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ma RR, Jiang FX, Qin XF, Xu XH (2012) Effects of oxygen vacancy and local spin on the ferromagnetic properties of Ni-doped In2O3 powders. Mater Chem Phys 132:796–799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rodriguez-Carvajal J (2003) FullProf, version 3.0.0. Laboratoire Leon Brillouin (CEA-CNRS), FranceGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Salah EA, Turki AM, Al-Othman EM (2012) Assessment of water quality of Euphrates River using cluster analysis. J Environ Prot 3:1629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Pan X, Mei H, Qu S, Huang S, Sun J, Yang L, Chen H (2016) Prediction and characterization of P-glycoprotein substrates potentially bound to different sites by emerging chemical pattern and hierarchical cluster analysis. Int J Pharm 502:61–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    JI NK, Das M, Mukherji R, Kumar RN (2011) Assessment of heavy metal pollution in macrophytes, water and sediment of a tropical wetland system using hierarchical cluster analysis technique. J Int Environ Appl Sci 6 (1): 149–156Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Zhang JX, Liang YX, Wang X, Zhou HJ, Li SY, Zhang J, Feng Y, Lu N, Wang Q, Guo Z (2018) Strengthened epoxy resin with hyperbranched polyamine-ester anchored graphene oxide via novel phase transfer approach. Adv Compos Hybrid Mater 1(2):300–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Dubey DK, Singh DN, Kumar S, Nayak C, Kumbhakar P, Jha SN, Bhattacharya D, Ghosh AK, Chatterjee S (2016) Local structure and photocatalytic properties of sol–gel derived Mn–Li Co-doped ZnO diluted magnetic semiconductor nanocrystals. RSC Ad 6:22852–22867CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wang JL, Zhai QG, Li SN, Jiang YC, Hu MC (2016) Mesoporous In2O3 materials prepared by solid-state thermolysis of indium-organic frameworks and their high HCHO-sensing performance. Inorg Chem Commun 63:48–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wang X, Zheng R, Liu Z, Ho HP, Xu J, Ringer SP (2008) Structural, optical and magnetic properties of Co-doped ZnO nanorods with hidden secondary phases. Nanotechnology 19:455702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Karamat S, Rawat RS, Lee P, Tan TL, Springham SV, Ramanujan RV (2013) Synthesis and characterization of bulk cobalt-doped ZnO and their thin films. J Supercond Nov Magn 26:3115–3123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Srinet G, Varshney P, Kumar R, Sajal V, Kulriya PK, Knobel M, Sharma SK (2013) Structural, optical and magnetic properties of Zn1−xCoxO prepared by the sol–gel route. Ceram Int 39:6077–6085CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Younis A, Chu D, Li S (2013) Tuneable resistive switching characteristics of In2O3 nanorods array via Co doping. RSC Adv 32:13422–13428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    An Y, Xing Y, Pan F, Wu Z, Liu J (2016) Investigation of local structural environments and room-temperature ferromagnetism in (Fe, Cu)-codoped In2O3 diluted magnetic oxide films. Phys Chem Chem Phys 18:13701–13709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Naik MZ, Salker AV (2017) A systematic study of cobalt doped In2O3 nanoparticles and their applications. Mater Res Innov 21:237–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Rabbani A, Ayatollahi S (2015) Comparing three image processing algorithms to estimate the grain-size distribution of porous rocks from binary 2D images and sensitivity analysis of the grain overlapping degree. Spl Topics Rev Porous M Int J 6:71–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Wongsaprom K, Sonsupap S, Maensiri S, Kidkhunthod P (2015) Room-temperature ferromagnetism in Fe-doped In2O3 nanoparticles. Appl Phys A Mater Sci Process 121:239–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Birajdar SD, Khirade PP, Humbe AV, Jadhav KM (2016) Presence of intrinsic defects and transition from diamagnetic to ferromagnetic state in Co2+ ions doped ZnO nanoparticles. J Mater Sci Mater Electron 27:5575–5583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Dakhel AA (2015) Comparative study of the hydrogenation of Cu and TM (Mn, Fe, Ni)-codoped ZnO nanocomposite DMS. J Supercond Nov Magn 28:2039–2045CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Sharma VK, Varma GD (2007) Oxygen vacancies induced room temperature ferromagnetism in hydrogenated Mn-doped ZnO. J Appl Phys 102:056105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Singhal RK, Samariya A, Kumar S, Sharma SC, Xing YT, Deshpande UP, Shripathi T, Saitovitch E (2010b) A close correlation between induced ferromagnetism and oxygen deficiency in Fe doped In2O3. Appl Surf Sci 257:1053–1057CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Chiorescu C, Cohn JL, Neumeier JJ (2007) Impurity conduction and magnetic polarons in antiferromagnetic oxides. Phys Rev B 76:020404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Pal B, Sarkar D, Giri PK (2015) Structural, optical, and magnetic properties of Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles: correlation of magnetic moment with defect density. Appl Surf Sci 356:804–811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Bora T, Samantaray B, Mohanty S, Ravi S (2011) Ferromagnetism and bound magnetic polaron behavior in (In1-xCox)2O3. IEEE Trans Magn 47:3991–3994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Srinet G, Varshney P, Kumar R, Sajal V, Kulriya PK, Knobel M, Sharma SK (2015) Structural, optical and magnetic properties of Zn1−xCoxO prepared by the sol–gel route. Ceram Int 39:6077–6085CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Singhal RK (2011) Room temperature ferromagnetism and its “switch” behaviour in some dilute magnetic oxides: an electronic structure and magnetization study. Solid State Phenom 171:19–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rana Mukherji
    • 1
    Email author
  • Vishal Mathur
    • 1
  • Arvind Samariya
    • 2
  • Manishita Mukherji
    • 3
  1. 1.The ICFAI UniversityJaipurIndia
  2. 2.University of RajasthanJaipurIndia
  3. 3.Amity University RajasthanJaipurIndia

Personalised recommendations