Factors associated with perception of bad odor by users of ventilated improved pit latrines in Cape Coast, Ghana
- 8 Downloads
Perception of bad odor in sanitation facilities is one of the causes of open defecation, which is a major cause of water pollution in developing countries. This study assessed how users of ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrines in Cape Coast, Ghana, perceive the level of odor in their latrines and identified the factors associated with perception of bad odor. A total of 211 users of 127 VIP latrines were purposively sampled from selected communities within the City. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on the users’ perception of the odor level measured on an ordinal scale. The questionnaire also enquired the users’ characteristics and observations about the hygienic conditions of their toilets. An inspection checklist was used to assess the design and construction features of the latrines as well as the usage and maintenance practices. It was found that having a stake in a latrine’s ownership reduces the odds for perceiving bad odor in the latrine while attainment of higher education increases the odds. Furthermore, perception of bad odor was found to be more associated with the usage and maintenance practices (such as fouling of the squat hole or seat with excreta and mismanagement of used anal-cleansing materials) rather than the design and construction of the latrines. The findings of the study underscore the need to accompany the provision of sanitation facilities with user hygiene, as highlighted in the sanitation target of the sustainable development goals, else physical facilities alone cannot provide a guarantee against open defecation.
KeywordsOdor perception Sanitation Ventilated improved pit latrine Cape Coast Ghana
The authors wish to thank all who assisted in conducting this work.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The author declares that this work was funded from his own resources and has no conflict of interests.
Human respondents of the study were not subjected to any form of treatment or trial so no ethical clearance was sought. Questionnaires were anonymised to conceal the identities of the respondents.
- Appiah, E.O. & Oduro-Kwarteng, S. (2011). Households’ perception of community toilets in low-income communities in Kumasi. Paper presented at the 3rd Ghana water forum: water and sanitation services delivery in a rapidly changing Urban Environment, 5th—7th September, 2011, Accra.Google Scholar
- CCMA. (2014). Cape Coast metropolitan assembly WASH master plan. Cape Coast: Cape Coast Metropolitan Assembly.Google Scholar
- Cotton, A., Franceys, R., Pickford, J., & Saywell, D. (1995). On-plot sanitation in low-income urban communities: a review of literature. Loughborough: Water, Engineering and Development Centre.Google Scholar
- GBD Diarrhoeal Diseases Collaborators. (2017). Estimates of global, regional, and national morbidity, mortality, and aetiologies of diarrhoeal diseases: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. The Lancet Infectious Diseases,17(9), 909–948. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ghana Districts. (2019). Cape Coast Metropolitan Assembly. http://www.ghanadistricts.com/Home/District/67. Accessed 26 Jun 2019.
- GSS. (2012). 2010 population and housing census final result. Accra: Ghana Statistical Service.Google Scholar
- Kalbermatten, J.M., Julius, D.S. & Gunnerson C.G. (1980). Appropriate Technology for Water and Sanitation: Technical and Economic Options. Report 302.5-80TE-18068, A Contribution to the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.Google Scholar
- Keraita, B., Kjær, P., Jensen, M., Konradsen, F., Akple, M., & Rheinländer, T. (2013). Accelerating uptake of household latrines in rural communities in the Volta region of Ghana. Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development,03(1), 26–34. https://doi.org/10.2166/washdev.2013.035.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mara, D.D. (1984). The Design of Ventilated Improved Pit Latrines. Technology Advisory Group Technical Note No. 13. Washington, D.C.: The World BankGoogle Scholar
- Myweather2.com (2019). Cape Coast Climate History. http://www.myweather2.com/City-Town/Ghana/Cape-Coast/climate-profile.aspx?month=1. Accessed 10 Jun 2019.
- Nakagiri, A., Niwagaba, C. B., Nyenje, P. M., Kulabako, R. N., & Tumuhairwe, J. B. (2016). Are pit latrines in urban areas of Sub-Saharan Africa performing? A review of usage, filling, insects and odor nuisances. BMC Public Health,16, 120. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-016-2772-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Obeng, P. A., Oduro-Kwarteng, S., Keraita, B., Bregnhøj, H., Abaidoo, R. C., Awuah, E., et al. (2019a). Redesigning the ventilated improved pit latrine for use in built-up low-income settings. Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development,. https://doi.org/10.2166/washdev.2019.098.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ryan, B. & Mara, D.D. (1983a). Ventilated pit latrines: vent pipe design guidelines. Technology advisory group technical note No. 6. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.Google Scholar
- Ryan, B. & Mara, D.D. (1983b). Pit latrine ventilation: field investigation methodology. Technology advisory group technical note no. 4. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.Google Scholar
- UNICEF. (1997). Towards better programming: a sanitation handbook (1st ed.). New York: United Nations Children’s Fund.Google Scholar
- United Nations. (2015). Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. New York: United Nations. https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/post2015/transformingourworld. Accessed 26 Jul 2019.
- United Nations. (2018). Sustainable Development Goal 6 Synthesis Report 2018 on Water and Sanitation. New York: United Nations. https://www.unwater.org/publication_categories/sdg-6-synthesis-report-2018-on-water-and-sanitation/. Accessed 26 Jul 2019
- WASHwatch. (2019). How does WASH contribute to SDGs. https://washwatch.org/en/sdg-hub/wash-all-sdgs/. Accessed 18 Jul 2019.
- WHO. (2000). Air quality guidelines (2nd ed.). Copenhagen: World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe.Google Scholar
- WHO. (2013). Preventing sanitation-related diseases. http://www.who.int/phe/events/wha_66/flyer_wsh_sanitation_related_disease.pdf. Accessed 12 Jun 2019.