A review of the water–energy–food nexus measurement and management approach

  • F. M. Tashtoush
  • W. K. Al-Zubari
  • A. ShahEmail author
Review Article


Water, energy, and food are the fundamental resources for improving living conditions and sustainable development. Because substantial interdependencies and relationships exist among these three sectors, the word nexus between water–energy–food is being used to indicate the importance of managing them together and not in isolation. This paper reviews and analyzes the current status of water–energy–food nexus approach, which has attracted widespread attention in the past few years, with the aim to understand the nexus thinking and illustrate the methods and tools used in the nexus analysis. This is expected to help the policy makers and researchers to be better informed about the options for sustainable securing and managing these three resources. In addition, such integration between these three sectors will significantly help in achieving the goals of sustainable development, since the water–energy–food nexus is directly related to three goals 2, 6, and 7, which are, respectively, related to ensuring access to food, water, and sustainable energy for all.


Sustainable development Sustainability Nexus Food, water, and energy security Resource efficiency 



The authors wish to thank all who assisted in conducting this work.


  1. Abbott, M., Bazilian, M., Egel, D., & Willis, H. (2017). Examining the food–energy–water and conflict nexus. Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering, 18, 55–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abdelradi, F., & Serra, T. (2015). Food–energy nexus in Europe: price volatility approach. Energy Economics, 48, 157–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Al-Ansari, T., Korre, A., Nie, Z., & Shah, N. (2015). Development of a life cycle assessment tool for the assessment of food production systems within the energy, water and food nexus. Sustainable Production Consumption, 2, 52–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Al-Saidi, M., Birnbaum, D., Buriti, R., et al. (2016). Water resources vulnerability assessment of MENA countries considering energy and virtual water interactions. Procedia Engineering, 145, 900–907.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Al-Zubari, W. (2013). Water, energy, and food nexus in the Arab region. In: Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Arab Forum for Environment and Development (AFED) “Sustainable Energy: Prospects, challenges, opportunities”.Google Scholar
  6. Al-Zubari, W. et al. (2016). WEF nexus policy briefs in the Arab region (1–6). GIZ and LAS publications. Accessed March 2019.
  7. Al-Zubari, W. (2017). Status of water in the Arab region (chapter 1): the water, energy, and food security nexus in the arab region. Water security in a new world. Switzerland: Springer.Google Scholar
  8. Amjath-Babu, T. S., Sharma, B., Brouwer, R., et al. (2019). Integrated modelling of the impacts of hydropower projects on the water–food–energy nexus in a transboundary Himalayan river basin. Applied Energy, 239, 494–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Artioli, F., Acuto, M., & McArthur, J. (2017). The water–energy–food nexus: an integration agenda and implications for urban governance. Political Geography, 61, 215–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bazilian, M., Rogner, H., Howells, M., et al. (2011). Considering the energy, water and food nexus: towards an integrated modelling approach. Energy Policy, 39(12), 7896–7906.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Beddington, J. (2009). Food, energy, water and the climate: a perfect storm of global events. London, UK.Google Scholar
  12. Bieber, N., Ker, H., Wang, X., et al. (2018). Sustainable planning of the energy–water–food nexus using decision making tools. Energy Policy, 113, 584–607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Biggs, E. M., Bruce, E., Boruff, B., et al. (2015). Sustainable development and the water–energy–food nexus: a perspective on livelihoods. Environmental Science & Policy Journal, 54, 389–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chang, Y., Li, G., Yao, Y., et al. (2016). Quantifying the water–energy–food nexus: current status and trends. Energies, 9(2), 65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chen, S., & Chen, B. (2016). Urban energy–water nexus: a network perspective. Applied Energy, 184, 905–914.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chu, C., Ritter, W., & Sun, X. (2019). Spatial variances of water–energy nexus in China and its implications for provincial resource interdependence. Energy Policy, 125, 487–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Collins, R., Kristensen, P., & Thyssen, N. (2009). Water resources across Europe-confronting water scarcity and drought. European environment agency (EEA) report.Google Scholar
  18. Covarrubias, M. (2019). The nexus between water, energy and food in cities: towards conceptualizing socio-material interconnections. Sustainability Science, 14, 277–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Daher, B. T., & Mohtar, R. H. (2015). Water–energy–food (WEF) nexus tool 2.0: guiding integrative resource planning and decision-making. Water International, 40(5–6), 748–771.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dai, J., Wu, S., Han, G., Weinberg, J., Xie, X., Wu, X., et al. (2018). Water-energy nexus: a review of methods and tools for macro-assessment. Applied Energy, 210, 393–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. El-Gafy, I., Grigg, N., & Waskom, R. (2017). Water–food–energy: nexus and non-nexus approaches for optimal cropping pattern. Water Resources Management, 31, 4971–4980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Endo, A., Burnett, K., Orencio, P., et al. (2015). Methods of the water–energy–food nexus. Water, 7(10), 5806–5830.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Endo, A., Tsurita, I., Burnett, K., & Orencio, P. M. (2017). A review of the current state of research on the water, energy, and food nexus. Journal of Hydrology Regional Studies, 11, 20–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. ESCWA (United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia). (2015). Water development report 6: the water, energy and food security nexus in the Arab region. United Nations.Google Scholar
  25. European Union (EU). (2012). European report on development 2011/2012—confronting scarcity: managing water, energy and land for inclusive and sustainable growth. Accessed March 2019.
  26. European Union (EU). (2018). Position paper on water, energy, food and ecosystems (WEFE) nexus and sustainable development goals (SDGs). Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.Google Scholar
  27. Fang, D., & Chen, B. (2017). Linkage analysis for the water–energy nexus of city. Applied Energy, 189, 770–779.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). (2006). World agriculture: towards 2030/2050–global perspective studies unit, Rome, Italy.Google Scholar
  29. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). (2011). Energy-smart: food for people and climate, issue paper, Rome. Accessed March 2019.
  30. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). (2012). Energy-smart food at FAO: an overview, at a glance: the role of energy in food security and climate. United Nations Publications.Google Scholar
  31. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). (2014). The water-energy-food nexus: a new approach in support of food security and sustainable agriculture, Rome, Italy.Google Scholar
  32. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). (2017). The future of food and agriculture: trends and challenges.Google Scholar
  33. Flammini, A., Puri, M., Pluschke, L., & Dubois, O. (2014). Walking the nexus talk: assessing the water–energy–food nexus in the context of the sustainable energy for all initiative. Rome: FAO publications.Google Scholar
  34. Frenken, K., & Gillet, V. (2012). Irrigation water requirement and water withdrawal by country. FAO AQUASTAT reports.Google Scholar
  35. Garcia, D. J., Lovett, B. M., & You, F. (2019). Considering agricultural wastes and ecosystem services in food–energy–water-waste nexus system design. Journal of Cleaner Production, 228, 941–955.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gephart, J., Davis, K., Emery, K., et al. (2016). The environmental cost of subsistence: optimizing diets to minimize footprints. Science of the Total Environment, 553, 120–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gerbens-Leenes, W., Hoekstra, A., & van der Meer, T. (2009). The water footprint of bioenergy. PNAS, 106(25), 10219–10223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Giampietro, M., Aspinall, R., Bukkens, S., et al. (2013). An innovative accounting framework for the food–energy–water nexus: application of the MuSIASEM approach to three case studies. Rome: FAO publications.Google Scholar
  39. Gragg, R., Anandhi, A., Jiru, M., & Usher, K. (2018). A conceptualization of the urban food–energy–water nexus sustainability paradigm: modeling from theory to practice. Frontiers in Environmental Science, 133, 1–14.Google Scholar
  40. Gulati, M., Jacobs, I., Jooste, A., et al. (2013). The water–energy–food security nexus: challenges and opportunities for food security in South Africa. Aquatic Procedia, 1, 150–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Harvey, M., & Pilgrim, S. (2011). The new competition for land: food, energy, and climate change. Food Policy, 36, S40–S51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hoff, H. (2011). Understanding the nexus–background paper for the Bonn 2011 Conference: the water, energy and food security nexus; Stockholm Environment Institute. Stockholm, Sweden.Google Scholar
  43. Hong, J., Zhong, X., Guo, S., et al. (2019). Water–energy nexus and its efficiency in China’s construction industry: evidence from province-level data. Sustainable Cities and Society, 48, 101557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Howells, M., Hermann, S., Welsch, M., et al. (2013). Integrated analysis of climate change, land-use, energy and water strategies. Nature Climate Change, 3, 621–626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hussey, K., & Pittock, J. (2012). The energy–water nexus: managing the links between energy and water for a sustainable future. Ecology and Society, 17(1), 31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hussien, W., Memon, F., & Savic, D. (2017). An integrated model to evaluate water–energy–food nexus at a household scale. Environmental Modelling & Software, 93, 366–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. IEA (International Energy Agency). (2008). World energy outlook 2008. Paris, France.Google Scholar
  48. IEA (International Energy Agency). (2012). Water for energy: is energy becoming a thirstier resource? (chapter 17) Excerpt from the world energy outlook 2012.Google Scholar
  49. IRENA (International Renewable Energy Agency). (2015). Renewable energy in the water, energy and food nexus. Technical report.Google Scholar
  50. Jiang, Y., Xu, X., Huo, Z., et al. (2016). Optimizing regional irrigation water use by integrating a two-level optimization model and an agro-hydrological model. Agricultural Water Management, 178, 76–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Karabulut, A., Crenna, E., Sala, S., & Udias, A. (2018). A proposal for integration of the ecosystem–water–food–land–energy (EWFLE) nexus concept into life cycle assessment: a synthesis matrix system for food security. Journal of Cleaner Production, 172, 3874–3889.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Karatayev, M., Rivotti, P., Mourão, S., et al. (2017). The water–energy–food nexus in Kazakhstan: challenges and opportunities. Energy Procedia, 125, 63–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Karnib, A. (2017a). A quantitative nexus approach to analyze the interlinkages across the sustainable development goals. Journal of Sustainable Development, 10(5), 173–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Karnib, A. (2017b). Quantitative assessment framework for water, energy and food nexus. Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering, 6, 11–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Karnib, A. (2017c). Evaluation of technology change effects on quantitative assessment of water, energy and food nexus. Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, 5, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Karnib, A. (2017d). Water–energy–food nexus: a coupled simulation and optimization framework. Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, 5, 84–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Karnib, A. (2018). Bridging science and policy in water–energy–food nexus: using the Q-nexus model for informing policy making. Water Resources Management, 32(15), 4895–4909.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kurian, M. (2017). The water–energy–food nexus trade-offs, thresholds and transdisciplinary approaches to sustainable development. Environmental Science & Policy, 68, 97–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lal, R., Mohtar, R. H., Assi, A., et al. (2017). Soil as a basic nexus tool: soils at the center of the food–energy–water nexus. Current Sustainable/Renewable Energy Reports, 4, 117–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Laso, J., Margallo, M., García-Herrero, I., et al. (2018). Combined application of life cycle assessment and linear programming to evaluate food waste-to-food strategies: seeking for answers in the nexus approach. Waste Management, 80, 186–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lawford, R., Bogardi, J., Marx, S., et al. (2013). Basin perspectives on the water–energy–food security nexus. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 5, 607–616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Leck, H., Conway, D., Bradshaw, M., & Rees, J. (2015). Tracing the water–energy–food nexus. Description, theory and practice. Geography Compass, 9(8), 445–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Li, M., Fu, Q., Singh, V., et al. (2019a). An optimal modelling approach for managing agricultural water–energy–food nexus under uncertainty. Science of the Total Environment, 651, 1416–1434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Li, M., Singh, V., Fu, Q., et al. (2019b). Optimization of agricultural water–food–energy nexus in a random environment: an integrated modelling approach. Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment. Scholar
  65. Li, G., Wang, Y., Huang, D., & Yang, H. (2017). Water–energy–food nexus in urban sustainable development: an agent-based model. International Journal of Crowd Science, 1(2), 121–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Liu, D., Zhang, J., Zeng, Y., Shen, Y. (2019). Modeling the physical nexus across water supply, wastewater management and hydropower generation sectors in river–reservoir systems. Water, 11(4), 822.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Magoni, M. (2017). Energy systems and water and food nexus (chapter 16). Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.Google Scholar
  68. Mahlknecht, J., & González-Bravo, R. (2018). Towards measuring the water–energy–food nexus: the case of Latin America and the Caribbean region. Energy Procedia, 153, 169–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mannan, M., Al-Ansari, T., Mackey, H., et al. (2018). Quantifying the energy, water and food nexus: a review of the latest developments based on life-cycle assessment. Journal of Cleaner Production, 193, 300–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Marker, C., Venghaus, S., & Hake, J. (2018). Integrated governance for the food–energy–water nexus: the scope of action for institutional change. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 97, 290–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Marzooq, M., Alsabbagh, M., & Al-Zubari, W. (2018). Energy consumption in the municipal water supply sector in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering, 7, 95–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Meadows, D. H., Meadows, D. L., & Randers, J. (1992). Beyond the limits: confronting global collapse envisioning a sustainable future. USA: Chelsea Green Pub.Google Scholar
  73. Menegaki, A. N., & Tiwari, A. K. (2018). A global food–energy–water nexus with heterogeneity, non-stationarity and cross-sectional dependence. Quality & Quantity, 52, 2723–2755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Miralles-Wilhelm, F. (2016). Development and application of integrative modeling tools in support of food-energy-water nexus planning—a research agenda. Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences, 6(1), 3–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Misselhorn, A., Aggarwal, P., Ericksen, P., et al. (2012). A vision for attaining food security. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 4(1), 7–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mohtar, R. H., & Daher, B. (2012). Water, energy, and food: the ultimate nexus, 2nd ed. Encyclopedia of agricultural, food, and biological engineering. Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  77. Mohtar, R. H., & Lawford, R. (2016). Present and future of the water–energy–food nexus and the role of the community of practice. Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences, 6, 192–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Moioli, E., Salvati, F., Chiesa, M., et al. (2018). Analysis of the current world biofuel production under a water–food–energy nexus perspective. Advances in Water Resources, 121, 22–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Momblanch, A., Papadimitriou, L., Jain, S., et al. (2019). Untangling the water–food–energy–environment nexus for global change adaptation in a complex Himalayan water resource system. Science of the Total Environment, 655, 35–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Mortada, S., Abou Najm, M., Yassine, A., et al. (2018). Towards sustainable water–food nexus: an optimization approach. Journal of Cleaner Production, 178, 408–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Nawab, A., Liu, G., Meng, F., et al. (2019). Urban energy–water nexus: spatial and inter-sectoral analysis in a multi-scale economy. Ecological Modelling, 403, 44–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Newell, B., Marsh, D. M., & Sharma, D. (2011). Enhancing the resilience of the Australian national electricity market: taking a systems approach in policy development. Ecology and Society, 16(2), 15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Nhamo, L., Ndlela, B., Nhemachena, C., et al. (2018). The water–energy–food nexus: climate risks and opportunities in southern Africa. Water, 10(567), 1–18.Google Scholar
  84. Nie, Y., Avraamidou, S., Xiao, X., et al. (2019). A food–energy–water nexus approach for land use optimization. The Science of the Total Environment, 659, 7–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development). (2012). OECD environmental outlook to 2050. Paris: OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
  86. OFID (The OPEC Fund for International Development). (2017). The energy–water–food nexus: managing key resources for sustainable development. Vienna, Austria.Google Scholar
  87. Olsson, G. (2013). Water, energy and food interactions—challenges and opportunities. Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering, 7, 787–793.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Rasul, G. (2014). Food, water, and energy security in south Asia: a nexus perspective from the Hindu Kush Himalayan region. Environmental Science & Policy, 39, 35–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Rasul, G. (2016). Managing the food, water, and energy nexus for achieving the sustainable development goals in south Asia. Environmental Development, 18, 14–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Ringler, C., Bhaduri, A., & Lawford, R. (2013). The nexus across water, energy, land and food (WELF): potential for improved resource use efficiency. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 5(6), 617–624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Roidt, M., & Avellán, T. (2019). Learning from integrated management approaches to implement the nexus. Journal of Environmental Management, 237, 609–616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Roth, D., & Warner, J. (2008). Virtual water: virtuous impact? The unsteady state of virtual water. Agriculture and Human Values, 25, 257–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Sachs, L., & Silk, D. (1990). Food and energy: strategies for sustainable development (p. 90). Japan: United Nations University Press, Tokyo. Accessed March 2019.Google Scholar
  94. Saladini, F., Betti, G., Ferragina, E., et al. (2018). Linking the water–energy–food nexus and sustainable development indicators for the Mediterranean region. Ecological Indicators, 91, 689–697.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Schlor, H., Venghaus, S., & Hake, J. F. (2018a). An integrated assessment model for the German food–energy–water nexus. Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems, 6, 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Schlor, H., Venghaus, S., & Hake, J. F. (2018b). The FEW-nexus city index—measuring urban resilience. Applied Energy, 210, 382–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Schmidt, J., & Matthews, N. (2018). From state to system: financialization and the water–energy–food–climate nexus. Geoforum, 91, 151–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Shang, Y., Hei, P., Lu, S., et al. (2018). China’s energy–water nexus: assessing water conservation synergies of the total coal consumption cap strategy until 2050. Applied Energy, 210, 643–660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Siddiqi, A., & Anadon, L. D. (2011). The water–energy nexus in middle East and North Africa. Energy Policy, 39, 4529–4540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Stephan, R., Mohtar, R., Daher, B., et al. (2018). Water–energy–food nexus: a platform for implementing the sustainable development goals. Water International, 43, 472–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Swatuk, L., & Cash, C. (2018). Perspectives on the nexus (chapter 1): water, energy and food security in an era of climate change, Political Economy Series (pp. 1–13). Water, Energy, Food and People Across the Global South.Google Scholar
  102. Taghizadeh-Hesary, F., Rasoulinezhad, E., & Yoshino, N. (2019). Energy and food security: linkages through price volatility. Energy Policy, 128, 796–806.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Tian, H., Lu, C., Pan, S., et al. (2018). Optimizing resource use efficiencies in the food–energy–water nexus for sustainable agriculture: from conceptual model to decision support system. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 33, 104–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. UN General Assembly. (2015). Transforming our world: the 2030 agenda for sustainable development, A/RES/70/1. Accessed October 2019.
  105. UNDESA (United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs). (2014). Population division, world urbanization prospects—the 2014 revision.Google Scholar
  106. UNDESA (United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs). (2015). Population division, world population prospects—the 2015 revision.Google Scholar
  107. UNDP (United Nations Development Program). (2006). World population projections, the 2006 revision. New York: United Nations publications.Google Scholar
  108. UNEP (United Nations Environment Program). (2011). Towards a green economy: pathways to sustainable development and poverty eradication—a synthesis for policy makers. Nairobi, Kenya.Google Scholar
  109. UN-ESCAP (United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific). (2013). The status of the water–food–energy nexus in Asia and the Pacific. Bangkok: United Nations publications.Google Scholar
  110. USNIC (United States National Intelligence Council). (2012). Global trends 2030: alternative worlds. Washington, DC, p. 137.Google Scholar
  111. Van-Vuuren, D. P., Nakicenovic, N., Riahi, K., et al. (2012). An energy vision: the transformation towards sustainability—interconnected challenges and solutions. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 4(1), 18–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Vito, R., Portoghese, I., Pagano, A., et al. (2017). An index-based approach for the sustainability assessment of irrigation practice based on the water–energy–food nexus framework. Advances in Water Resources, 110, 423–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Wakeel, M., Chen, B., Hayat, T., et al. (2016). Energy consumption for water use cycles in different countries: a review. Applied Energy, 178, 868–885.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Wang, S., Fath, B., & Chen, B. (2019). Energy–water nexus under energy mix scenarios using input–output and ecological network analyses. Applied Energy, 233–234, 827–839.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. WEF (World Economic Forum). (2011a). Water security: the water–food–energy–climate nexus. Washington: Island Press.Google Scholar
  116. WEF (World Economic Forum). (2011b). Global Risks. (2011). Sixth edition: an initiative of the risk response network. Geneva, Switzerland: World Economic Forum. Accessed October 2019.Google Scholar
  117. Wicaksono, A., Jeong, G., & Kang, D. (2017). Water, energy, and food nexus: review of global implementation and simulation model development. Water Policy, 19, 440–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Willis, H. H., Groves, D. G., Ringel, J. S., et al. (2016). Developing the pardee RAND food–energy–water security index: toward a global standardized, quantitative, and transparent resource assessment. Santa Monica: RAND Corporation.Google Scholar
  119. WWDR (World Water Development Report). (2009). WWDR 3: water in a changing world, world water assessment programme, earthscan, London, UK.Google Scholar
  120. WWF-SA (World Wide Fund for Nature-South Africa). (2017). The food–energy–water nexus as a lens for delivering the UN’s sustainable development goals in southern Africa. The Worldwide Fund for Nature, South Africa.Google Scholar
  121. Xu, H., Tian, Z., He, X., et al. (2019). Future increases in irrigation water requirement challenge the water–food nexus in the northeast farming region of China. Agricultural Water Management, 213, 594–604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Yigitcanlar, T., Dur, F., & Dizdaroglu, D. (2015). Towards prosperous sustainable cities: a multiscalar urban sustainability assessment approach. Habitat International, 5, 36–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Yillia, P. T. (2016). Water–energy–food nexus: framing the opportunities, challenges and synergies for implementing the SDGs. Österreichische Wasser- Und Abfallwirtschaft, 68, 86–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Zeng, X., Zhao, J., Wang, D., et al. (2019). Scenario analysis of a sustainable water–food nexus optimization with consideration of population-economy regulation in Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region. Journal of Cleaner Production, 228, 927–940.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Zhang, P., Zhang, L., Chang, Y., et al. (2019). Food–energy–water (FEW) nexus for urban sustainability: a comprehensive review. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 142, 215–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environment and Sustainable Development, College of ScienceUniversity of BahrainSakhirKingdom of Bahrain
  2. 2.Department of Natural Resources and Environment, College of Graduate StudiesArabian Gulf UniversityManamaKingdom of Bahrain
  3. 3.Department of Chemistry, College of ScienceUniversity of BahrainSakhirKingdom of Bahrain

Personalised recommendations