Effect of cement replacement by fly ash and epoxy on the properties of pervious concrete

  • Zainab Hashim Abbas Al-sallamiEmail author
  • Qosai S. Radi Marshdi
  • Rana Abd-Al-Hadi Mukheef
Original Paper


Permeable concrete has strong drainage and can recharge groundwater, making it a common semi-rigid road base material. Over the last decade, authors have focused on the properties of porous concrete with pozzolanic admixtures. The number of studies on the mechanical properties of pervious concrete made through the replacement of pozzolanic materials with cement is quite limited. Unfortunately, researchers have not focused on utilizing additional admixtures to improve the properties of pervious concrete made with high volumes of pozzolanic replacement. This paper focuses on the effect of using epoxy to partially replace cement on the mechanical properties of permeable concrete made with a significant amount of cement replaced by fly ash. A comparison between the addition and non-addition (15%) of sand as a partial replacement for gravel was investigated and the effect of increased gravel to sand ratios on the properties of porous concrete was also studied. This paper showed a slight decrease in porosity due to epoxy replacement compared to an increase in porosity by other mechanical properties. There was an increase in strength when epoxy replacement reached above 45% as well as a marginal decrease in strength and modulus of elasticity with (50%) fly ash replacement. There was also an increase in strength due to (15%) gravel replacement by sand of above 40%, with a reduction in strength with increased gravel to sand ratios.


Epoxy concrete Pervious concrete No fines concrete Fly ash 



This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.


  1. Abdel-Fattah, H., El-Hawary, M. M., & Falah, A. (2000). Effect of elevated temperature on the residual fracture toughness of epoxy modified concrete. Kuwait Journal Science Engineering, 27, 1.Google Scholar
  2. ASTM C1754/C1754M. (2012). Test method for density and void content of hardened pervious concrete. American Society for Testing and Materials.Google Scholar
  3. ASTM C618-02. (2002). Standard specification for coal fly ash and raw or calcined natural pozzolan for use as a mineral admixture in concrete. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International.
  4. ASTM C469-02. (2002). Standard test method for static modulus of elasticity and poisson’s ratio of concrete in compression. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International.
  5. ASTM C78-84. (2003). Standard test method for flexural strength of concrete (using simple beam with third points loading) (vol. 04.02). Annual Book of ASTM Standard.Google Scholar
  6. ASTM C150-05. (2005). Standard specification for Portland cement. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International.
  7. BS, 1881- Part 116. (1989). Method for determination of compressive strength of concrete cubes. British Standard.Google Scholar
  8. Carsana, M., Tittarelli, F., & Bertolini, L. (2013). Use of no-fines concrete as a building material: strength, durability properties and corrosion protection of embedded steel. Cement and Concrete Research, 48, 64–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Choucha, S., Benyahia, A., Ghrici, M., & Mansour, M. S. (2018). Correlation between compressive strength and other properties of engineered cementitious composites with high-volume natural pozzolana. Asian Journal of Civil Engineering, 19, 639. Scholar
  10. Deo, O., & Neithalath, N. (2010). Compressive behavior of pervious concretes and a quantification of the influence of random pore structure features. Materials Science Engineering, A528(1), 402–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Elalaoui, O., Ghorbel, E., & Ouezdou, M. B. (2018). Influence of flame retardant addition on the durability of epoxy based polymer concrete after exposition to elevated temperature. Construction and Building Materials, 192, 233–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. El-Hawary, M. M., & Abdul-Jaleel, A. (2010). Durability assessment of epoxy modified concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 24(8), 1523–1528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Grubeša, I. N., Barišić, I., Ducman, V., & Korat, L. (2018). Draining capability of single-sized pervious concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 169, 252–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. IQS (Iraqi Specification), No.45. (1984). Aggregate from natural sources for concrete and construction. Baghdad.Google Scholar
  15. IQS (Iraqi Specification), No.5. (1984). Portland cement. Baghdad.Google Scholar
  16. Jiang, P., Jiang, L., Zha, J., & Song, Z. (2017). Influence of temperature history on chloride diffusion in high volume fly ash concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 144, 677–685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lee YL, Goh KS, Koh HB, Ismail B. (2009). Foamed Aggregate Pervious Concrete—an option for road on Peat, Proceedings of MUCEET2009 Malaysian Technical Universities Conference on Engineering and Technology, June 20–22, 2009: pp.126–29.Google Scholar
  18. Lee, J. W., Jang, Y. I., Park, W. S., & Kim, S. W. (2016). A study on mechanical properties of porous concrete using cementless binder. International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, 10(4), 527–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Neville, A. M. (1995). Properties of concrete. Harlow: Longman Group Limited.Google Scholar
  20. Ozgul, E. O., & Ozkul, M. H. (2018). Effects of epoxy, hardener, and diluent types on the hardened state properties of epoxy mortars. Construction and Building Materials, 187(2018), 360–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Petrie, E. M. (2006). Epoxy adhesive formulations. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  22. Putman, B. J., & Neptune, A. I. (2011). Comparison of test specimen preparation techniques for pervious concrete pavements. Construction and Building Materials, 25–8(2011), 3480–3485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rahal, K. N., & El-Hawary, M. M. (2002). Experimental investigation of shear strength of epoxy-modified longitudinally reinforced concrete beams. ACI Structural Journal, 99(1), 90–97.Google Scholar
  24. Rebeiz, K. S., Serhal, S. P., & Fowler, D. W. (1993). Recommended design procedure in shear for steel-reinforced polymer concrete. ACI Structural Journal, 90(5), 562–567.Google Scholar
  25. Schaefer, V. R., Wang, K., Suleiman, M. T., & Kevern, J. T. (2006). Mix design development for pervious concrete in cold weather climates, Center for Transportation Research and Education. Ames: Iowa State University.Google Scholar
  26. Tošić, N., Marinković, S., Pecić, N., Ignjatović, I., & Dragaš, J. (2018). Long-term behaviour of reinforced beams made with natural or recycled aggregate concrete and high-volume fly ash concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 176, 344–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. D. Van Gemert, A. Beeldens. (2012). Evolution in modeling microstructure formation in polymer-cement concrete. In M.H. Ozkul, H.N. Atahan, U.A. Dogan, B. Pekmezci, O. Sengul (Eds.), Proceedings of 7th Asian Congress on Polymers in Concrete (ASPIC), Istanbul, 2012, pp. 59–73.Google Scholar
  28. Xu, G., Shen, W., Huo, X., Yang, Z., Wang, J., Zhang, W., et al. (2018). Investigation on the properties of porous concrete as road base material. Construction and Building Materials, 158(2018), 141–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Yang, Zhifeng, Ma, Wei, Shen, Weiguo, & Zhou, Mingkai. (2008). The aggregate gradation for the porous concrete pervious road base material. Journal of Wuhan University of Technology-Materials Science, Ed. 23(3), 391–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Zhong, R., & Wille, K. (2015). Material design and characterization of high performance pervious concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 98, 51–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Zhou, J., Zheng, M., Wang, Q., Yang, J., & Lin, T. (2016). Flexural fatigue behavior of polymer-modified pervious concrete with single sized aggregates. Construction and Building Materials, 124, 897–905.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zainab Hashim Abbas Al-sallami
    • 1
    Email author
  • Qosai S. Radi Marshdi
    • 1
  • Rana Abd-Al-Hadi Mukheef
    • 1
  1. 1.Al-Qasim Green University, College of Water Resources EngineeringHillaIraq

Personalised recommendations