Using BIM to propose building alternatives towards lower consumption of electric power in Iraq

  • Hafeth I. NajiEmail author
  • Mohammed Mahmood
  • Huda E. Mohammad
Original Paper


This paper investigates the reasons for the dissatisfaction of the Iraqi people with the privatization of electricity due to the significant increase in electricity bills. It examines the main factors that affect the energy demand in the Iraqi houses for cooling and heating by modeling and analyzing existing buildings using Building Information Modeling (BIM). The results of energy consumption from BIM were compared with real consumption of the houses which was obtained from the bills to investigate the reality of the results. The simulation results were well-matched with the real data. Then three buildings were modeled and analyzed with alternative materials for roofs and walls by considering the cost of construction (CC), life cycle energy cost (LCEC) and carbon emission (CE) for each alternative. The best alternative is selected according to the opinion of the occupants, which was achieved by a questionnaire and the data obtained from the BIM models. The questionnaire data and the simulation results were analyzed by using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique. The obtained results were represented in a framework for selecting the best materials for constructing walls and roofs. For walls, it was found that rock block is the best since the final weight from AHP results was 0.5371, and Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Block (AAC block) rib slab is the best for roof with a final weight equal to 0.4218. The final model has LCEC of five times less than the original unit, but CC were equal and CE was decreased from 5 ton/year to less than 0.8 ton/year in the suggested alternative.


Privatization BIM Energy analysis AHP Electricity power in Iraq 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

There is no conflict of interest.


  1. Autodesk, Inc. (2011). Building information modeling for sustainable design. San Rafael: Autodesk Inc.Google Scholar
  2. Eastman, C. M., Eastman, C., Teicholz, P., & Sacks, R. (2011). BIM handbook: a guide to building information modeling for owners, managers, designers, engineers, and contractors. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  3. Filipovic, A. (2006). Impact of privatization on economic growth. Undergraduate Economic Review, 2(1), 7.Google Scholar
  4. Häkkinen, T., & Kiviniemi, A. (2008). Sustainable building and BIM. In: Proceedings of the 2008 world sustainable building conference, 21–25 September, Melbourne, Australia.Google Scholar
  5. Ibahim, A., Mansor, A., & Kaduri, J. (2017). Selection of best house construction materials for roofs and walls regarding cost, weight, thermal insulation and mechanical properties. Engineering and Technology Journal, 35(1), 248–260.Google Scholar
  6. Karim, A. (2010). Privatization and the need to transform the Iraqi economy. Qadisiyah Journal of Administrative and Economic Sciences, 12(2), 159.Google Scholar
  7. Laine, T., Hänninen, R., & Karola, A. (2007). Benefits of BIM in the thermal performance management. In: Proceedings of the building simulation.‏Google Scholar
  8. Liu, Sha. (2015). sustainable building design optimization using building information modeling. ICCREM, 2015, 326–335.Google Scholar
  9. Mahjoob, A., & Abed, M. M. (2015). Assessing BIM integration with sustainable requirement for buildings construction.‏ International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR). Google Scholar
  10. Pavlovskis, M., Antucheviciene, J., & Migilinskas, D. (2017). Assessment of buildings redevelopment possibilities using MCDM and BIM techniques. Procedia Engineering, 172, 846–850.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Potts, K., & Ankrah, N. (2008). Construction cost management: learning from case studies. Abingdon: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Saaty, R. W. (1987). The analytic hierarchy process—what it is and how it is used. Mathematical Modelling, 9(3–5), 161–176.MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  13. Saaty, T. L. (1991). Fundamentals of decision making and priority. Pittsburgh: RWS Publications.Google Scholar
  14. Ustinovičius, L., Popov, V., & Migilinskas, D. (2005). Automated management, modeling and choosing of economically effective variant in construction. Transport and Telecommunication, 6(1), 183–189.Google Scholar
  15. Vlahinić-Dizdarević, N. (2011). The effects of privatization in electricity sector: the case of southeast European countries. Öffentliche Daseinsvorsorge in Deutschland und Ostmitteleuropa zwischen Daseinsvorsorge und Wettbewerb. Kovac, Stuttgart: Verlag Dr.Google Scholar
  16. Wong, K. D., & Fan, Q. (2013). Building information modelling (BIM) for sustainable building design. Facilities, 31(3/4), 138–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Civil Engineering DepartmentUniversity of DiyalaDiyalaIraq

Personalised recommendations