Asian Journal of Civil Engineering

, Volume 20, Issue 1, pp 71–85 | Cite as

Improving the properties of waste plastic lightweight aggregates-based composite mortars in an experimental saline environment

  • M. T. Gouasmi
  • A. S. BenosmanEmail author
  • H. Taïbi
Original Paper


The present work aims to highlight the use of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic waste for the conception of a new PET-siliceous sand composite material (WPLA) to be used, after heat treatment, as a light aggregate in various screed mortars. This composite is intended to be employed as a substitute for conventional aggregate at the rates of 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% by weight. Reinforcement corrosion, caused by the attack of chloride ions, is the main reason for the deterioration of reinforced concrete structures around the world. To determine the effects of waste PET as a lightweight aggregate (WPLA), five WPLAX composite mortar formulations were immersed into a 5% NaCl solution. The mechanical strength, absorption of water by capillary suction, and chlorine ion penetration into mortars were all studied. Additional information on the microstructure of the materials was also collected. The results obtained indicated a decrease in the compressive strength of WPLAX. Moreover, Fick’s second law made it possible to observe a decrease in the penetration of chlorine ions, ranging from 40 to 90% in WPLAX mortars as the replacement ratio increased. Likewise, it was found that the sorptivity coefficients of WPLAX mortars decreased from 43 to 65% as compared to that of reference mortar. These encouraging results open up new prospects for using these composite materials as protective mortars for reinforced concrete structures. At the same time, it is one way of getting rid of these PET plastic wastes which represent a serious pollution form to the environment and a real threat to human health.


Waste PET lightweight aggregate (WPLA) PET plastic waste Valorization Saline environment Diffusion of chlorine ions Sorptivity 



We would like to acknowledge the financial contribution of the Ministry of Higher Education within the framework of the Algerian project CNEPRU B00L01UN310120130068, as well as the HASNAOUI Group of Companies, TEKNACHEM Algeria, and the late Ahmed Taleb. We would like also to extend our deepest thanks to Professor M. MOULI, team leader at the LABMAT laboratory at ENP-Oran Maurice Audin, as well as to Dr. Y. SENHADJI and Dr. N. KAZI TANI.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.


  1. 2iE. (2013). Collection Actes de conférences, “ECOMATERIAUX de construction: Pilier de la croissance verte en Afrique?,” Conférence Internationale, edn. Sud Sciences et Technologies. Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, 10–12 Juin.Google Scholar
  2. Adam Neville, M. (2000). Propriétés des Bétons. Paris: Traduit par le CRIB, Editions Eyrolles.Google Scholar
  3. Adedayo Badejo, A., Adebola Adekunle, A., Olusola Adekoya, O., Julius Ndambuki, M., Kehinde Kupolati, W., Babatunde Bada, S., et al. (2017). Plastic waste as strength modifiers in asphalt for a sustainable environment. African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development, 9(2), 173–177. Scholar
  4. AFPC-AFREM. (1997). Méthodes recommandées pour la mesure des grandeurs associées à la durabilité. Compte rendu des Journées Techniques AFPC-AFREM “Durabilité des Bétons”, 11–12 décembre, Toulouse, France.Google Scholar
  5. Akinyele, J. O., Salim, R. W., & Kupolati, W. K. (2016). Effect of rubber crumb on the microstructural properties of concrete. African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development, 8, 467–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alqahtani, F. K. (2017a). Recycled plastic aggregate for use in concrete, Patent No. US 2017/0088463 A1. Washington, U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.Google Scholar
  7. Alqahtani, F. K., Ghataora, G., Iqbal Khan, M., & Dirar, S. (2017b). Novel lightweight concrete containing manufactured plastic aggregate. Construction and Building Materials, 148, 386–397. Scholar
  8. Alqahtani, F. K., Iqbal Khan, M., & Ghataora, G. (2014). Synthetic aggregate for use in concrete, Patent No. US 8,921,463 B1, Washington, DC: 634 U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.Google Scholar
  9. Alqahtani, F. K., Iqbal Khan, M., Ghataora, G., & Dirar, S. (2017c). Production of recycled plastic aggregates and its utilization in concrete. Journal Materials of Civil Engineering, 29(4), 04016248. (ASCE).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. ASTM C1437-01. (2001). Standard test method for flow of hydraulic cement mortar. West Conshohocken, USA: American Society for Testing and Materials.Google Scholar
  11. ASTM C511-06. (2006). Standard specification for mixing rooms, moist cabinets, moist rooms, and water storage tanks used in the testing of hydraulic cements and concretes. West Conshohocken, USA: American Society for Testing and Materials.Google Scholar
  12. ASTM C109/C109M. (2011). Standard test method for compressive strength of hydraulic cement mortars (using 2-in. or [50-mm] cube specimens). West Conshohocken, USA: American Society for Testing and Materials.Google Scholar
  13. Badache, A., Benosman, A. S., Senhadji, Y., & Mouli, M. (2018). Thermo-physical and mechanical characteristics of sand-based lightweight composite mortars with recycled high-density polyethylene (HDPE). Construction and Building Materials, 163, 40–52. Scholar
  14. Benazzouk, A., Douzane, O., & Queneudec, M. (2004). Transport of fluids in cement–rubber composites. Cement & Concrete Composites, 26, 21–29. Scholar
  15. Benosman, A. S., Mouli, M., Taibi, H., Belbachir, M., & Senhadji, Y. (2011). Resistance of polymer (PET)—mortar composites to aggressive solutions. International Journal of Engineering Research in Africa, 5, 1–15. Scholar
  16. Benosman, A. S., Mouli, M., Taibi, H., Belbachir, M., Senhadji, Y., Bahlouli, I., et al. (2017). The chemical, mechanical and thermal properties of PET-Mortar composites containing waste PET. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, 16(7), 1489–1505. Scholar
  17. Benosman, A. S., Taibi, H., Mouli, M., Belbachir, M., & Senhadji, Y. (2008). Diffusion of chloride ions in polymer–mortar composites (PET). Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 110(3), 1600–1605. Scholar
  18. Choi, Y. W., Moon, D. J., Chung, J. S., & Cho, S. K. (2005). Effects of waste PET bottles aggregate on the properties of concrete. Cement Concrete Research, 35, 776–781. Scholar
  19. Choi, Y. W., Moon, D. J., Kim, Y. J., & Lachemi, M. (2009). Characteristics of mortar and concrete containing fine aggregate manufactured from recycled waste polyethylene terephthalate bottles. Construction and Building Materials, 23, 2829–2835. Scholar
  20. Collepardi, M., Marcialis, A., & Turriziani, R. (1972). The penetration of de-icing agents in cement pastes. IL Cemento, 69, 143–150.Google Scholar
  21. Crank, J. (1956). The mathematics of diffusion (p. 347). Oxford: Clarendon Press.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  22. Debska, B., & Licholai, L. (2017a). Analysis of bending strength of resin mortars that are at risk of long-term exposure to environmental corrosives. IOP Conference Series: Earth Environmental Science, 95(1–9), 042015. Scholar
  23. Debska, B., & Licholai, L. (2017b). Environmental factors affecting the strength characteristics of modified resin mortars. IOP Conference Series: Earth Environmental Science, 95(1–7), 042016. Scholar
  24. EN 196-1. (2005). Methods of testing cement—Part 1: Determination of strength. Brussels: European Committee for Standardization, CEN.Google Scholar
  25. Fraj, A. B., Kismi, M., & Mounanga, P. (2010). Valorization of coarse rigid polyurethane foam waste in lightweight aggregate concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 24, 1069–1077. Scholar
  26. Ganesan, K., Rajagopal, K., & Thangavel, K. (2008). Rice husk ash blended cement: assessment of optimal level of replacement for strength and permeability properties of concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 22, 1675–1683. Scholar
  27. GCI-714. (2009). Durabilité et Réparations du Béton. Sherbrooke: Université de Sherbrooke.Google Scholar
  28. Ge, Z., Huang, D., Sun, R., & Gao, Z. (2014). Properties of plastic mortar made with recycled polyethylene terephthalate. Construction and Building Materials, 73, 682–687. Scholar
  29. Ge, Z., Sun, R., Zhang, K., Gao, Z., & Li, P. (2013). Physical and mechanical properties of mortar using waste polyethylene terephthalate bottles. Construction and Building Materials, 44, 81–86. Scholar
  30. Ghernouti, Y., & Rabehi, B. (2012). Strength and durability of mortar made with plastics bag waste (MPBW). International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, 6(3), 145–153. Scholar
  31. Goto, S., Tsunetani, M., Yanagida, H., & Kondo, R. (1979). Diffusion of chloride ion in hardened cement paste. Yogyo-Kyokai-Shi, 87(3), 126–133. Scholar
  32. Gouasmi, M. T. (2012). Effet d’agrégats légers à base de polytéréphtalate d’éthylène sur les propriétés des mortiers. Oran: Mémoire de Magister, Université d’Oran 1.Google Scholar
  33. Gouasmi, M. T., Benosman, A. S., Taibi, H., Belbachir, M., & Senhadji, Y. (2015). Effect of a composite aggregate on the durability of mortars. Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research, 3, 26–31.Google Scholar
  34. Gouasmi, M. T., Benosman, A. S., Taïbi, H., Kazi Tani, N., & Belbachir, M. (2017). Destructive and non-destructive testing of an industrial screed mortar made with lightweight composite aggregates WPLA. International Journal of Engineering Research in Africa, 33, 140–158. Scholar
  35. Gu, L., & Ozbakkaloglu, T. (2016). Use of recycled plastics in concrete: A critical review. Waste Management, 51, 19–42. Scholar
  36. Kou, S. C., Lee, G., Poon, C. S., & Lai, W. L. (2009). Properties of lightweight aggregate concrete prepared with PVC granules derived from scraped PVC pipes. Waste Management, 29, 621–628. Scholar
  37. Latroch, N., Benosman, A. S., Bouhamou, N.-E., Senhadji, Y., & Mouli, M. (2018). Physico-mechanical and thermal properties of composite mortars containing lightweight aggregates of expanded polyvinyl chloride. Construction and Building Materials, 175, 77–87. Scholar
  38. Marzouk, O. Y., Dheilly, R. M., & Queneudec, M. (2007). Valorisation of post-consumer plastic waste in cementitious concrete composites. Waste Management, 27, 310–318. Scholar
  39. Omrane, M., Benosman, A. S., Mouli, M., & Senhadji, Y. (2016). Use of thermoplastic polymer in mortar composites to improve its chloride penetration resistance. International Journal of Engineering Research in Africa, 22, 33–44. Scholar
  40. Onuaguluchi, O., & Panesar, D. K. (2014). Hardened properties of concrete mixtures containing pre-coated crumb rubber and silica fume. Journal of Cleaner Production, 82, 125–131. Scholar
  41. Planetoscope. (2012). Statistiques: Production mondiale de plastique. Accessed 2 Jan 2018.
  42. Raharinaivo, A., Arliguie, G., Chaussadent, T., Grimaldi, G., Pollet, V., & Taché, G. (1998). La corrosion et la protection des aciers dans le béton, Ed. Marne-la-Vallée: Presse de l’école nationale des ponts et chaussées (ENPC).Google Scholar
  43. Rashad, A. M. (2016). A comprehensive overview about recycling rubber as fine aggregate replacement in traditional cementitious materials. International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment, 5, 46–82. Scholar
  44. Saikia, N., & de Brito, J. (2012). Use of plastic waste as aggregate in cement mortar and concrete preparation: A review. Construction and Building Materials, 34, 385–401. Scholar
  45. Senhadji, Y., Escadeillas, G., Benosman, A. S., Mouli, M., Khelafi, H., & Ould Kaci, S. (2015). Effect of incorporating PVC waste as aggregate on the physical, mechanical, and chloride ion penetration behavior of concrete. Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology, 29(7), 625–640. Scholar
  46. Senthil Kumar, K., & Baskar, K. (2015a). Development of ecofriendly concrete incorporating recycled high-impact polystyrene from hazardous electronic waste. Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste, 19(3), 04014042-1. Scholar
  47. Senthil Kumar, K., & Baskar, K. (2015b). Recycling of E-plastic waste as a construction material in developing countries. Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, 17, 718–724. Scholar
  48. Senthil Kumar, K., Premalatha, P. V., & Baskar, K. (2017). Evaluation of transport properties of concrete made with E-Waste plastic. Journal of Testing and Evaluation, 45(5), 1849–1853. Scholar
  49. Shanmugapriya, M., & Helen Santhi, M. (2017). Strength and chloride permeable properties of concrete with high density polyethylene wastes. International Journal of Chemical Sciences, 15(1), 108–116.Google Scholar
  50. Sharma, R., & Bansal, P. P. (2016). Use of different forms of waste plastic in concrete—a review. Journal Cleaner Production, 112, 473–482. Scholar
  51. Siad, H., Mesbah, H. A., Mouli, M., Escadeillas, G., & Khelafi, H. (2014). Influence of mineral admixtures on the permeation properties of self-compacting concrete at different ages. Arabian Journal of Science Engineering, 39, 3641–3649. Scholar
  52. Stanish, K.D., Hooton, R.D. & Thomas, M.D.A. (1997). Testing the Chloride Penetration Resistance of Concrete: A Literature Review. FHWA Contract DTFH61-97-R-00022 “Prediction of Chloride Penetration in Concrete”, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.Google Scholar
  53. Sulyman, M., Haponiuk, J., & Formela, K. (2016). Utilization of recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) in engineering materials: A review. International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, 7(2), 100–108. Scholar
  54. UNI 7928, (1978). Concrete-Determination of the Ion Chloride Penetration. Ente Nazionale Italiano Di Unificazione-UNI, Milano, piazza A. Diaz, 2, December.Google Scholar
  55. Zuccheratte, A. C. V., Freire, C. B., & Lameiras, F. S. (2017). Synthetic gravel for concrete obtained from sandy iron ore tailing and recycled polyethyltherephtalate. Construction and Building Materials, 151, 859–865. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Exact and Applied Sciences, Laboratory of Polymer Chemistry LCPUniversity of Oran 1, Ahmed BenbellaOranAlgeria
  2. 2.Higher School of Applied SciencesESSA-TlemcenTlemcenAlgeria
  3. 3.Department of Civil Engineering, Laboratory of LABMATENPO Maurice AudinOranAlgeria

Personalised recommendations