Orthostatic hypotension and health outcomes: an umbrella review of observational studies
Key summary points
To investigate potential relationships between orthostatic hypotension (OH) and negative health outcomes and mortality, through an umbrella review with integrated meta-analyses.
Orthostatic hypotension is significantly associated with several negative outcomes in older people, but a suggestive evidence is available only for higher risk of coronary heart disease congestive heart failure, stroke, falls dementia, and all-cause mortality.
Orthostatic hypotension seems to be significantly associated with several negative health outcomes in older people, even if only associations with coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure, stroke, falls, dementia, and all-cause mortality are supported by suggestive evidence.
Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is associated with older age and many negative clinical outcomes in geriatric practice. We aimed to capture the breadth of outcomes that have been associated with the presence of OH and systematically assess the quality, strength and credibility of these associations using an umbrella review with integrated meta-analyses.
We systematically searched several major databases from their commencements through to 16th May 2019 for meta-analyses of observational studies of OH and any health-related outcome. We used these metrics to categorize the strength of evidence of significant outcomes (p < 0.05) from class I (convincing) to class IV (weak), according to the pre-established criteria.
From 975 abstracts, seven meta-analyses of 12 outcomes were included. For each outcome, the median number of studies was four, and the median number of participants was 46,493, with a median of 3630 incident cases. There was suggestive (class III) evidence that OH was associated with significantly higher risk of coronary heart disease (HR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.12–1.56), stroke (HR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.08–1.38), congestive heart failure (HR = 1.30, 95% CI 1.09–1.55), all-cause mortality (RR = 1.50, 95% CI 1.24–1.81), falls (OR = 1.84, 95% CI 1.39–2.44), and dementia (HR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.11–1.35).
The current evidence base indicates that OH is significantly associated with a range of adverse cardiovascular, cognitive, and mortality outcomes in older people, although the strength of this evidence remains only suggestive. Further research in larger samples and with lower risk of bias is required to build a fuller picture of the impact of OH on health.
KeywordsOrthostatic hypotension Umbrella review Meta-analysis Mortality Fall Heart failure Heart disease Stroke
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare no conflict of interest.
It was not requested being a revision of already published literature. This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
No patients were included in this review.
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