Ultrasound assessment of rectus femoris muscle in rehabilitation patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease screened for sarcopenia: correlation of muscle size with quadriceps strength and fat-free mass
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To determine the relationship of the size of the rectus femoris muscle, assessed by ultrasonography, with parameters of muscle strength and body composition that are commonly used in the case-finding of sarcopenia in rehabilitation patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Cross-sectional pilot study of 18 men with severe COPD and 17 healthy controls. Main outcome variables: cross-sectional area, thickness, and width of the non-dominant rectus femoris muscle obtained by ultrasound, muscle strength determined by voluntary maximum isometric contraction of the quadriceps muscle, and fat-free mass assessed by bioimpedance analysis.
Ultrasounds detected differences in the size of the rectus femoris muscle: cross-sectional area was 4.3 (SD 1.05) cm2 in patients, compared to 5.6 (SD 1.25) cm2 in controls; patients also presented lower quadriceps strength, and fat-free mass index. Cross-sectional area of the rectus femoris muscle showed a moderate correlation with quadriceps strength (R = 0.497, p = 0.036) and fat-free mass (R = 0.584, p = 0.011). In a multivariate linear model adjusted for age, body mass index, fat-free mass and muscle size, muscle strength was 7.44 kg lower (p value = 0.014) in patients, compared to controls.
A causal relationship was observed between the cross-sectional area of the rectus femoris muscle, assessed with ultrasonography, and maximum isometric strength of knee extension in COPD rehabilitation patients. Reduced cross-sectional area was also associated with loss of fat-free mass. Muscle ultrasound and bioimpedance analysis provide complementary and relevant information that could be useful in the case-finding of sarcopenia in COPD patients.
KeywordsUltrasound imaging Rectus femoris Muscle strength Body composition Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Rehabilitation
The authors thank the study participants and other contributors, including but not limited to Joan Vila for statistical support and Elaine Lilly, PhD, for unfailing support, language revisions and suggestions.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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