Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

La Noira Site (Centre, France) and the Technological Behaviours and Skills of the Earliest Acheulean in Western Europe Between 700 and 600 ka

  • 40 Accesses

Abstract

New fieldwork and the revision of lithic collections during the past decade have renewed our interpretation of the timing and characteristics of the earliest Acheulean techno-complexes in western Europe. The lower level of the la Noira site is a crucial snapshot for evaluating the technological abilities and strategies of Middle Pleistocene hominins at 700 ka in Europe at the beginning of elaborate biface production and associated behavioural changes. The site of la Noira is located in the central part of France, where climatic conditions may have had a stronger impact on occupations than in southern Europe. New excavations between 2011 and 2018, over a surface of 100 m2, yielded a large corpus of artefacts including cores, flakes, bifaces and a large heavy-duty component. We analysed the lithic corpus composed of almost 1000 artefacts from a taphonomic perspective, identified the chaînes opératoires and all the reduction processes involved at the site, and examined the spatial distribution of the archaeological remains. The results offer a broad overview of the types of lithic management and related cognition and skills of Middle Pleistocene hominins living on a riverbank under cool conditions, at the beginning of a glacial stage. A comparison with penecontemporaneous sites indicates that a technological shift possibly occurred in western Europe between 700 and 600 ka. The technological strategies used indicate (1) common abilities in core technologies including some sporadic independence from stone shape, (2) a diversity of technical solutions and morphological results for biface shaping with evidence of a bifacial or bilateral equilibrium and a preconceived form on some tools, and (3) a large and diversified heavy-duty component. Biases related to activities, raw material types and various traditions are discussed. The chronology of the emergence of new behaviours, such as an early biface shaping ability, seems to have been identical in the northwest and south of Europe.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17
Fig. 18
Fig. 19

References

  1. Abbate, E., & Sagri, M. (2012). Early to middle Pleistocene Homo dispersals from Africa to Eurasia: Geological, climatic and environmental constraints. Quaternary International, 267, 3–19.

  2. Álvarez-Posada, C., Parés, J. M., Sala, R., Viseras, C., & Pla-Pueyo, S. (2017). New magnetostratigraphic evidence for the age of Acheulean tools at the archaeo-palaeontological site “Solana del Zamborino” (Guadix–Baza Basin, S Spain). Nature Scientific Reports, 7(1), 13495.

  3. Antoine, P., Limondin-Lozouet, N., Chaussé, C., Lautridou, J. P., Pastre, J. F., Auguste, P., et al. (2007). Pleistocene fluvial terraces from northern France (Seine, Yonne, Somme): Synthesis and new results. Quaternary Science Reviews, 26, 2701–2723.

  4. Antoine, P., Limondin-Lozouet, N., Moncel, M.-H., Locht, J.-L., Auguste, P., Stoetzel, E., et al. (2014). Dating the earliest human occupation of Western Europe: New evidences from the fluvial terraces system of the Somme basin (Northern France). Quaternary International, 370, 77–99.

  5. Antoine, P., Moncel, M.-H., Limondin-Lozouet, N., Locht, J.-L., Bahain, J.-J., Moreno, D., et al. (2016). Palaeoenvironment and dating of the Early Acheulean from the type area of the (River) Somme basin (Northern France): New discoveries from the high terrace at Abbeville-Carrière Carpentier. Quaternary Science Reviews, 149, 338–371.

  6. Antoine, P., Moncel, M.-H., Locht, J.-L., Bahain, J.-J., Voinchet, P., Herisson, D., et al. (2019). The earliest record of Acheulean human occupation in North-West Europe. Nature Scientific Reports, 9, 13091. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-49400-w.

  7. Ashton, N.M.., & White, M.. (2003). Bifaces and raw materials: Flexible flaking in the British Early Palaeolithic. In Soressi, M., Dibble, H. (Eds.), Multiple approaches to the study of bifacial technology. University Museum Monography, 115, University of Pennsylvania (pp. 109–124). Philadelphia.

  8. Ashton, N., & Lewis, S. G. (2012). The environmental contexts of early human occupation of northwest Europe: The British Lower Palaeolithic record. Quaternary International, 271, 50–64.

  9. Ashton, N., Lewis J.E., & Hosfield, R. (2011). Mapping the human record: Population change in Britain during the Early Palaeolithic. In Ashton, N., Lewis, J.E., Stringer, C. (eds). The ancient human occupation of Britain (pp. 39-53), Quaternary Science.

  10. Baena Preysler, J. B., Navas, C. T., & Sharon, G. (2018). Life history of a large flake biface. Quaternary Science Reviews, 190, 123–136.

  11. Barsky, D., & de Lumley, H. (2010). Early European Mode 2 and the stone industry from the Caune de l’Arago’s archeostratigraphical levels “P”. Quaternary International, 223-224, 71–86.

  12. Barsky, D. (2013). The Caune de l’Arago stone industries in their stratigraphical context. Comptes Rendus Palevol, 1(5), 305–325.

  13. Barsky, D., Vergès, J.-M., Titton, S., Guardolia, M., Sala, R., & Toro, M. I. (2018). The emergence and significance of heavy-duty scrapers in ancient stone toolkits. Comptes Rendus Palevol, 17(3), 201–219.

  14. Bar-Yosef, O., & Goren-Inbar, N. (1993). The lithic assemblages of Ubeidiya. A Lower Palaeolithic site in the Jordan Valley, Quedem, University of Jerusalem.

  15. Belmaker, M. (2009). Hominin adaptability and patterns of faunal turnover in the Lower-Middle Pleistocene transition in the Levant. In Camps M., Chauhan, P.R (Eds). A sourcebook of Paleolithic transitions: methods, theories and Interpretations (pp. 211–227). Springer.

  16. Bermúdez de Castro, J. M., & Martinón-Torres, M. (2013). A new model for the evolution of the human Pleistocene populations of Europe. Quaternary International, 295, 102–112.

  17. Bermúdez de Castro, J. M., Martinón-Torres, M., Arsuaga, J. L., & Carbonell, E. (2017). Twentieth anniversary of Homo antecessor (1997-2017): A review. Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews, 26(4), 157–171.

  18. Beyene, Y., Katoh, S., WoldeGabriel, G., Hart, W. K., Sudo, M., Kondo, M., et al. (2013). The characteristics and chronology of the earliest Acheulean at Konso, Ethiopia. PNAS, 110(5), 1584–1591.

  19. Boëda, E., Courty, M.A., Fedoroff, N., Griggo, C., Hedley, I.G., & Muhesen, S. (2004). Le site acheuléen d’El Meirah, Syrie. In Auranche O., Le Mière M., Sanla Ville P. (Eds.). From river to the sea. The Paleololithic and the Neolithic on the Euphrates and in the Northern Levant (pp. 165-201). Bar International Series 1263.

  20. Boëda, E. (1993). Le débitage discoïde et le débitage Levallois récurrent centripète. Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française, 90-96, 392–404.

  21. Boëda, E. (2001). Détermination des unités techno-fonctionnelles de pièces bifaciales provenant de la couche acheuléenne C'3 base du site de Barbas I. In Cliquet, D. (ed) Les industries à outils bifaciaux du Paléolithique moyen d'Europe occidentale (pp. 51–77). ERAUL Liège.

  22. Bordes, F. (1961). Typologie du Paléolithique ancien et moyen. Delmas: Université de Bordeaux.

  23. Bourdier, F. (1958). Le bassin du Rhône au Quaternaire. Géologie et Préhistoire, Université de Paris, thèse de doctorat.

  24. Bourguignon, L., Barsky, D., Ivorra, J., De Weyer, L., Cuartero, F., Capdevila, R., et al. (2016). The stone tools from stratigraphical unit 4 of the Bois-de-Riquet site (Lézignan-la-Cèbe, Hérault, France): A new milestone in the diversity of the European Acheulian. Quaternary International, 411, 160–181.

  25. Breuil Abbé, H., & Kelley, H. (1954). Le Paléolithique ancien. Abbevillien. Clactonien. Acheuléen. Levalloisien. Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française, LI(8), 1-18.

  26. Bridgland, D. R., & White, M. J. (2015). Chronological variations in handaxes: Patterns detected from fluvial archives in north-west Europe. Journal of Quaternary Science, 30, 623–638.

  27. Carbonell, E., Garcia-Anton, M. D., Mallol, C., Mosquera, M., Ollé, A., Rodriguez, X. P., et al. (1999). The TD6 lithic industry from Grand Dolina, Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain) production and use. Journal of Human Evolution, 37, 653–693.

  28. Carbonell, E., Sala Ramos, R., Rodríguez, X. P., Mosquera, M., Ollé, A., Vergès, J. M., et al. (2010). Early hominid dispersals: A technological hypothesis for “out of Africa”. Quaternary International, 223-224, 36–44.

  29. Carrión, J. S., Rose, J., & Stringer, C. (2011). Early human evolution in the Western Palaearctic: Ecological scenarios. Quaternary Science Reviews, 30(11–12), 1281–1295.

  30. Carrión, J. S., & Walker, M. J. (2019). Background to Neanderthal presence in Western Mediterranean Europe. Quaternary Science Reviews, 217, 1–340 in press.

  31. Chauhan, P., Bridgland, D. R., Moncel, M.-H., Antoine, P., Bahain, J.-J., Briant, R., et al. (2017). Fluvial deposits as an archive of early human activity: Progress during the 20 years of the Fluvial Archives Group FLAG. Quaternary Science Reviews, 166, 114–149.

  32. Clark, J. D. (1967). The middle Acheulian occupation of Latamne, northern Syria. Quaternaria, 9, 1–68.

  33. Clark, G. (1969). World prehistory: A new outline. London: Cambridge University Press.

  34. Coltorti, M., Feraud, G., Marzoli, A., Peretto, C., Ton-Thate, T., Voinchet, P., et al. (2005). New 40Ar/39Ar, stratigraphic and paleoclimatic data on the Isernia La Pineta Lower Palaeolithic site, Molise, Italy. Quaternary International, 131, 11–22.

  35. Commont, M. V. (1908). Les industries de l'ancien Saint-Acheul. L'Anthropologie, 19, 528–572.

  36. Creanza, N., Kolodny, O., & Feldman, M. W. (2017). Greater than the sum of its parts? Modelling population contact and interaction of cultural repertoires. Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 14(130), 20170171.

  37. Crovetto, C., Longo, L., Peretto, C., & Vianello, F. (1994). The carinated denticulates from the Palaeolithic site of Isernia La Pineta (Molise, Central Italy): Tools or flaking waste? The results of the 1993 lithic experiments. Human Evolution, 9, 175–207.

  38. Cuenca-Bescos, G., Melero-Rubio, M., Rofes, J., Martinez, I., Arsuaga, J. L., Blain, H.-A., et al. (2011). The Early-Middle Pleistocene environmental and climatic change and the human expansion in Western Europe: A case study with small vertebrates (Gran Dolina, Atapuerca, Spain). Journal of Human Evolution, 60(4), 481–491.

  39. Deino, A. L., Behrensmeyer, A. K., Brooks, A. S., Yellen, J. E., Sharp, W. D., & Potts, R. (2018). Chronology of the Acheulean to Middle Stone Age transition in eastern Africa. Science, 360, 95–98.

  40. Delagnes, A., Lenoble, A., Harmand, S., Brugal, J.-P., Prat, S., Tiercelin, J.-J., et al. (2006). Interpreting pachyderm single carcass sites in the African Lowe rand Early Middle Pleistocene record: A multidisciplinary approach to the site of Nadungya 4 (Kenya). Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 25, 448–465.

  41. de la Torre, I. (2011). The early stone age lithic assemblages of Gadeb (Ethiopia) and the developed Oldowan/early Acheulean in East Africa. Journal of Human Evolution, 60, 768–812.

  42. de la Torre, I. (2016). The origins of the Acheulean: Past and present perspectives on a major transition in human evolution. Philosophical Transactions, B., 371.

  43. de la Torre, I., Mora, R., & Martinez-Moreno, J. (2008). The early Acheulean in Peninj (Lake Natron, Tanzania). Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 27, 244–264.

  44. de la Torre, I., & Mora, R. (2018). Technological behaviour in the early Acheulean of EF-HR (Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania). Journal of Human Evolution, 120(329), 377.

  45. Dennell, R. W., Martinón-Torres, M., & de Castro, J. M. B. (2011). Hominin variability, climatic instability and population demography in Middle Pleistocene Europe. Quaternary Science Reviews, 30(11–12), 1511–1524.

  46. Derex, M., Beugin, M. P., Godelle, B., & Raymond, M. (2013). Experimental evidence for the influence of group size on cultural complexity. Nature, 503(7476), 389.

  47. Despriée, J., Voinchet, P., Tissoux, H., Bahain, J.-J., Falguères, C., Courcimault, et al. (2011). Lower and Middle Pleistocene human settlements recorded in fluvial deposits of the middle Loire River Basin, Centre Region, France. Quaternary Science Reviews, 30(11–12), 1474–1485.

  48. Despriee, J., Courcimault, G., Moncel, M.-H., Voinchet, P., Tissoux, H., Puaud, S., et al. (2016). The Acheulean site of la Noira (Centre region, France): Characterization of materials and alterations, choice of lacustrine millstone and evidence of anthropogenic behavior. Quaternary International, 411, 144–159.

  49. Despriée, J., Courcimault, G., Voinchet, P., Puaud, S., Bahain, J.-J., Moreno, D., et al. (2017). Etude Géoarchéologique du site acheuléen ancien de « La Noira » (Brinay, Cher, Région Centre, France). Quaternaire, 28(1), 49–71.

  50. Dépont, J. (1984). Une industrie acheuléenne dans son contexte géologique : la sablière des ˮFougèresˮ à Brinay (Cher). Cahiers d’Archéologie et d’Histoire du Berry, Bourges, 78, 19–31.

  51. Falguères, C., Shao, Q., Han, F., Bahain, J. J., Richard, M., Perrenoud, C., et al. (2015). New ESR and U-series dating at Caune de l'Arago, France: A key-site for European Middle Pleistocene. Quaternary Geochronology, 30, 547–553.

  52. Fogarty, L., Wakano, J. Y., Feldman, M. W., & Aoki, K. (2017). The driving forces of cultural complexity. Human Nature, 28(1), 39–52.

  53. Galanidou, N., Cole, J., Iliopoulos, G., & McNabb, J. (2013). East meets west: The Middle Pleistocene site of Rodafnidia on Lesvos, Greece. Antiquity, 336, 87.

  54. Gallotti, R., Collina, C., Raynal, J.-P., Kieffer, G., Geraads, D., & Piperno, M. (2010). The early Middle Pleistocene Site of Gombore II (Melka Kunture, Upper Awash, Ethiopia) and the issue of Acheulean bifacial shaping strategies. African Archaeological Revue, 27, 291–322.

  55. Gallotti, R. (2013). An older origin for the Acheulean at Melka Kunture (Upper Awash, Ethiopia): Techno-economic behaviours at Garba IVD. Journal of Human Evolution, 65, 594–620.

  56. Gallotti, R., & Peretto, C. (2015). The lower/early Middle Pleistocene small debitage productions in Western Europe: New data from Isernia La Pineta t.3c (Upper Volturno Basin, Italy). Quaternary International, 357, 264–281.

  57. Gallotti, R., & Mussi, M. (2017). Two Acheuleans, two humankinds: From 1.5 to 0.85 ma at Melka Kunture (Upper Awash, Ethiopian highlands). Journal of Anthropological Sciences, 95, 1–46.

  58. Garcia, J., Martinez, K., & Carbonell, E. (2013). The Early Pleistocene stone tools from Vallparadis (Barcelona, Spain): Rethinking the European mode 1. Quaternary International, 316, 94–114.

  59. García-Medrano, P., Ollé, A., Ashton, N., & Roberts, M. B. (2018). The mental template in handaxe manufacture: New insights into Acheulean lithic technological behavior at Boxgrove, Sussex, UK. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 26, 396–422 1–27.

  60. Geneste, J.M. (1989). Economie des ressources lithiques dans le Mousterien du sud- ouest de la France. In Otte, M. (Ed.), L'Homme de Néanderthal, La Subsistance vol. 6 (pp. 75–97). ERAUL, Liège.

  61. Geneste, J. M. (1991). Systèmes techniques de production lithique: variations technoéconomiques dans les processus de réalisation des outillages paléolithiques. Technology and Culture, 17(18), 1–35.

  62. Goren-Inbar, N., Feibel, C. S., Verosub, K. L., Melameb, Y., Kislev, M. E., Tchernov, E., et al. (2000). Pleistocene milestones on the out-of-Africa corridor at Gesher Benot Yakov, Israel. Science, 289, 944–947.

  63. Goren-Inbar, N., & Sharon, G. (2006). Axe age: Acheulian tool-making from quarry to discard. London: Equinox Publishing Ltd.

  64. Goren-Inbar, N., Sharon, G., Alperson-Afil, N., & Lashiver, I. (2008). The Acheulean massive scrapers of GBY-a product of the biface chaîne opératoire. Journal of Human Evolution, 55, 702–712.

  65. Goren-Inbar, N., Grosman, L., & Sharon, G. (2011). The technology and significance of the Acheulian giant cores of Gesher Benot Ya ‘aqov, Israel. Journal of Archaeological Science, 38, 1901–1917.

  66. Goren-Inbar, N., Alperson-Afil, N., Sharon, G., & Herzlinger, G. (2018). The Acheulian site of Gesher Benot Ya ‘aqov volume IV: The lithic assemblages. Springer.

  67. Grove, M. (2009). Hunter–gatherer movement patterns: Causes and constraints. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 28(2), 222–233.

  68. Grove, M. (2016). Population density, mobility, and cultural transmission. Journal of Archaeological Science, 74, 75–84.

  69. Guadelli, J.-L., Turq, A., & Seronie-Vivien, R. (2012). Le site de Pradayrol à Caniac-du-Causse (Lot). In Turq, A., Airvaux, J., Despriée, J., Texier, P.-J. (Eds.), La conquête de l'Ouest Il y a un million d'années en Europe. Musée des Eyzies (pp. 136–137). Maison de l'Histoire de France.

  70. Guthrie, R.D. (1984). Mosaics, allelochemics and nutrients: An ecological theory of Late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions. In Martin, P.S., Klein, R.G. (Eds), Quaternary extinctions: A prehistoric revolution (pp. 259–298). University of Arizona Press.

  71. Haidle, M., & Brauer, J. (2011). From brainwave to tradition—How to detect innovations in tool behavior, Special Issue: Innovation and the Evolution of Human Behavior. PaleoAnthropology, 144–153.

  72. Hardy, B. L., Moncel, M.-H., Despriée, J., Courcimault, G., & Voinchet, P. (2018). Clues to Homo heidelbergensis behavior at the 700ka Acheulean site of La Noira (France). Quaternary Sciences Review, 199, 60–82.

  73. Harmand, S. (2009). Raw materials and techno-economic behaviors at Oldowan and Acheulean sites in the West Turkana region, Kenya. In Adams, B., et al. (Eds.), Lithic materials and Paleolithic societies. Blades, Blackwell Publishing.

  74. Hayden, B. (1979). Palaeolithic reflections. Lithic Technology and ethnographic excavations among Australian Aborigines. Australian Institute for Arboriginal Studies, Camberra.

  75. Herisson, D., Airvaux, J., Lenoble, A., Richter, D., Claud, E., & Primault, J. (2012). Le gisement acheuléen de La Grande-Vallée à Colombiers (Vienne, France): stratigraphie, processus de formation, datations préliminaires et industries lithiques. Paleo, 23, 1–18.

  76. Herzlinger, G., Wynn, T., & Goren-Inbar, N. (2017). Expert cognition in the production sequence of Acheulian cleavers at Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, Israel: A lithic and cognitive analysis. PLoS One, 12(11), e0188337.

  77. Herzlinger, G., & Goren-Inbar, N. (2019). Do a few tools necessarily mean a few people? A techno-morphological approach to the question of group size at Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, Israel. Journal of Human Evolution, 128, 45–58.

  78. Hublin, J.-J. (2009). The origin of Neandertals. PNAS, 106(38), 16022–16027.

  79. Iovita, R., Tuvi-Arad, I., Moncel, M.-H., Despriée, J., Voinchet, P., & Bahain, J.-J. (2017). High handaxe symmetry at the beginning of the European Acheulian: The data from la Noira (France) in context. PLoS One, 12(5), e0177063.

  80. Isaac, G. (1977). Olorgesaillie. Archaeological studies of a middle Pleistocene lake basin in Kenya. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

  81. Jagher, R. (2011). Nadaouiyeh Aïn Askar - Acheulian variability in the Central Syrian Desert. In Le Tensorer, J-M., Jagher, R., Otte, M. (Eds) The Lower and Middle Palaeolithic in the Middle East and Neighbouring. ERAUL (pp. 209–225). Université de Liège, University of Basel.

  82. Jagher, R., & Le Tensorer, J-M. (2011). El Kowm, a key area for the Palaeolithic of the Levant in Central Syria. In Le Tensorer, J-M., Jagher, R., Otte, M. (eds) The Lower and Middle Palaeolithic in the Middle East and Neighbouring (pp. 197–209). ERAUL, Université de Liège, University of Basel.

  83. Jiménez-Arenas, J. M., Santonja, M., Botella, M., & Palmqvist, P. (2011). The oldest handaxes in Europe: Fact or artefact? Journal of Archaeological Science, 38(12), 3340–3349.

  84. Key, A. J., Proffitt, T., Stefani, E., & Lycett, S. J. (2016). Looking at handaxes from another angle: Assessing the ergonomic and functional importance of edge form in Acheulean bifaces. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 44, 43–55.

  85. Key, A. J. M., & Lycett, S. J. (2017). Form and function in the Lower Palaeolithic: History, progress, and continued relevance. Journal of Anthropological Sciences, 95, 1–42.

  86. Kleindienst, M. R. (1961). Variability within the late Acheulian assemblage in eastern Africa. South African Archaeological Bulletin, 16, 35–52.

  87. Kuhn, S. L. (2002). Paleolithic archeology in Turkey. Evolutionary Anthropology, 11, 198–210.

  88. Kuman, K., Li, C., & Li, H. (2014). Large cutting tools in the Danjiangkou Reservoir Region, central China. Journal of Human Evolution, 76, 129–153.

  89. Lamotte, A., & Tuffreau, A. (2001). Les industries lithiques de Cagny-la-Garenne II (Somme). In Tuffreau, A. (Ed.), L’Acheuléen dans la vallée de la Somme et Paléolithique moyen dans le nord de la France : données récentes (pp. 59-91). CERP n°6.

  90. Leakey, L.S.B. (1951). Olduvai Gorge. A report on the evolution of the hand-axe culture in Beds I-IV. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

  91. Leakey, M. D. (1971). Olduvai Gorge: Excavations in bed I and bed II, 1960–1963. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  92. Lefèvre, D., Raynal, J.-P., Vernet, G., Kieffer, G., & Piperno, M. (2010). Tephro-stratigraphy and the age of ancient southern Italian Acheulean settlements: The sites of Loreto and Notarchirico (Venosa, Basilicata, Italy). Quaternary International, 223-224, 360–368.

  93. Lepré, C. L., Roche, H., Kent, D. V., Harmand, S., Quinn, R. L., Brugal, J.-P., et al. (2011). An earlier origin for the Acheulian. Nature, 47, 82–85.

  94. Leroyer, M. (2016). Palethnologie acheuléenne: de la technologie bifaciale à l'organisation de la subsistance collective: étude du site de Boxgrove-Eartham Pit (West Sussex, Angleterre) et de deux sites du cours moyen de la Seine. Phd dissertation, University of Paris 1, unpublished.

  95. Le Tensorer, J. M. (2009). Le Paléolithique ancien de Syrie et l'importance du Golan comme voie de passage lors de l'expansion des premiers hommes hors d'Afrique. The international colloquium history and antiquities of Al-Golan 2007–2008, Damascus-Syria, The directorate General of Antiquities and Museums.

  96. Longo, L., Peretto, C., Sozzi, M., & Vannucci, S. (1997). Artefacts, outils ou supports épuisés? Une nouvelle approche pour l’étude des industries du Paléolithique ancien: le cas d’Isernia la Pineta (Molise, Italie Centrale). L’Anthropologie, 101(4), 579–596.

  97. Lugli, F., Cipriani, A., Arnaud, J., Arzarello, M., Peretto, C., & Benazzi, S. (2017). Suspected limited mobility of a Middle Pleistocene woman from southern Italy: Strontium isotopes of a human deciduous tooth. Nature Scientific Reports, 7, 8615.

  98. Lycett, S. J., & von Cramon-Taubadel, N. (2008). Acheulean variability and hominin dispersals: A model-bound approach. Journal of Archaeological Science, 35, 553–562.

  99. Lycett, S. J., Schillinger, K., Eren, M. I., von Cramon-Taubadel, N., & Mesoudi, A. (2016). Factors affecting Acheulean handaxe variation: Experimental insights, microevolutionary processes, and macroevolutionary outcomes. Quaternary International, 411, 386–401.

  100. MacDonald, K., Martinez-Torres, M., Dennell, R. W., & Bermúdez de Castro, J. M. (2012). Discontinuity in the record for hominin occupation in south-western Europe: Implications for occupation of the middle latitudes of Europe. Quaternary International, 271, 84–97.

  101. McHenry, L. J., & de la Torre, I. (2018). Hominin raw material procurement in the Oldowan-Acheulean transition at Olduvai Gorge. Journal of Human Evolution, 120, 378–401.

  102. McNabb, J., Binyon, F., & Hazelwood, L. (2004). The large cutting tools from the South African Acheulean and the question of social tradition. Current Anthropology, 45(5), 653–677.

  103. McNabb, J., Cole, J., & Hoggard, C. S. (2018). From side to side: Symmetry in handaxes in the British Lower and Middle Palaeolithic. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, 17, 293–310.

  104. McPherron, S. (2006). What typology can tell us about Acheulian handaxe production. In N. Goren-Inbar & G. Sharon (Eds.), Axe age Acheulian tool-making from quarry to discard (pp. 267–287). London: Equinox Publishing Ltd.

  105. Manzi, G. (2004). Human evolution at the Matuyama-Brunhes boundary. Evolutionary Anthropology, 13, 11–24.

  106. Martínez, K., & Garriga, J. G. (2016). On the origin of the European Acheulian. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 44, 87–104.

  107. Martinón-Torres, M., Dennell, R., & Bermudez de Castro, J. M. (2011). The Denisova hominin need not be an out of Africa story, 60(2), 251–5.

  108. Martinón-Torres, M., Bermúdez de Castro, J. M., Gòmez-Robles, A., Arsuaga, J. L., Carbonell, E., Lordkipanidze, D., et al. (2007). Dental evidence on the hominin dipersal during the Pleistocene. PNAS, 104, 13279–13282.

  109. Méndez-Quintas, E., Santonja, M., Pérez-González, A., Duval, M., Demuro, M., & Arnold, L. J. (2018). First evidence of an extensive Acheulean large cutting tool accumulation in Europe from Porto Maior (Galicia, Spain). Nature Scientific Reports, 8, 3082.

  110. Messager, E., Lebreton, V., Marquer, L., Russo-Ermolli, E., Orain, R., Renault-Miskovsky, J., et al. (2011). Palaeoenvironments of early hominins in temperate and Mediterranean Eurasia: New palaeobotanical data from Palaeolithic key-sites and synchronous natural sequences. Quaternary Science Reviews, 30(11–12), 1439–1447.

  111. Meyer, M., Qiaomei, F., Aximu-Petri, A., Glocke, I., Nickel, B., Arsuaga, J.-L., et al. (2014). A mitochondrial genome sequence of a hominin from Sima de los Huesos. Nature, 505, 403–406.

  112. Moncel, M.-H. (1995). Biface et outil-biface du Paléolithique moyen ancien: réflexion à partir de sites d'Ardèche, Orgnac 3 et Payre. Paleo, 7, 157–169.

  113. Moncel, M.-H.. (2008). L’expansion humaine en Eurasie de 1,8 à 0,8 Ma : les données, les questions et les hypotheses. In Bocquet-Appel, J-P., La Paléodémographie (pp. 45–59). Editions errance, France.

  114. Mgeladze, A., Lordkipanidze, D., Moncel, M.-H., Despriee, J., Chagelishvili, R., Nioradze, M., et al. (2011). Hominin occupations at the Dmanisi site, Georgia, Southern Caucasus: Raw materials and technical behaviours of Europe’s first hominins. Journal of Human Evolution, 60, 571–596.

  115. Moncel, M.-H., Despriée, J., Voinchet, P., Tissoux, H., Moreno, D., Bahain, J.-J., et al. (2013). Early evidence of Acheulean settlement in north-western Europe-la Noira site, a 700 000 year-old occupation in the Center of France. PLoS One, 8(11), e75529.

  116. Moncel, M.-H., Ashton, N., Lamotte, A., Tuffreau, A., Cliquet, D., & Despriée, J. (2015). The north-west Europe early Acheulian. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 40, 302–331.

  117. Moncel, M.-H., Arzarello, M., & Peretto, C. (2016). Editorial. The Holstainian Eldorado. Quaternary International, 409, 1–8.

  118. Moncel, M.-H., & Schreve, D.. (2017). News. European Acheuleans. Northern v. southern Europe: Hominins, technical behaviour, chronological and environmental contexts - International conference, National Museum of Natural History, Paris, France. November 19-20-21, 2014. Evolutionary Anthropology, 44-46.

  119. Moncel, M-H., & Ashton, N. (2018). From 800 to 500 ka in Europe. The oldest evidence of Acheuleans in their technological, chronological and geographical framework. In Mussi, M., Gallotti, R. (Eds.), Chapter 11. The emergence of the Acheulean in East Africa (pp. 215–235). Springer edition.

  120. Moncel, M.-H., Arzarello, M., Boëda, E., Bonilauri, S., Chevrier, B., Gaillard, C., et al. (2018a). The assemblages with bifacial tools in Eurasia (first part). What is going on in the West? Data on Western and Southern Europe and the Levant. Comptes Rendus Palevol, 17(1–2), 45–60.

  121. Moncel, M.-H., Arzarello, M., Boëda, E., Bonilauri, S., Chevrier, B., Gaillard, C., et al. (2018b). Assemblages with bifacial tools in Eurasia (second part). What is going on in the East? Data from India, Eastern Asia and Southeast Asia. Comptes Rendus Palevol, 17(1–2), 61–76.

  122. Moncel, M.-H., Arzarello, M., Boëda, E., Bonilauri, S., Chevrier, B., Gaillard, C., et al. (2018c). Assemblages with bifacial tools in Eurasia (third part) Considerations on the bifacial phenomenon throughout Eurasia. Comptes Rendus Palevol, 17(1–2), 77–97.

  123. Moncel, M.-H., Landais, A., Lebreton, V., Combourieu-Nebout, N., Nomade, S., & Bazin, L. (2018d). Linking environmental changes with human occupations between 900 and 400 ka in Western Europe. Quaternary International, 480, 78–94.

  124. Moncel, M.-H., Santagata, C., Pereira, A., Nomade, S., Bahain, J.-J., Voinchet, P., & Piperno, M. (2019). Biface production at Notarchirico (Southern Italy) before 600 ka? Contribution to the earliest evidence of the European Acheuleans PLoS ONE, 14(9), e0218591. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0218591.

  125. Mosquera, M., Ollé, A., Saladie, P., Caceres, I., Huguet, R., Rosas, A., et al. (2015). The Early Acheulean technology of Barranc de la Boella (Catalonia, Spain). Quaternary International, 318, 1–17.

  126. Mosquera, M., Ollé, A., & Rodríguez, X. P. (2013). From Atapuerca to Europe: tracing the earliest peopling of Europe. Quaternary International, 295, 130-137.

  127. Mosquera, M., Ollé, A., Rodríguez-Álvarez, X. P., & Carbonell, E. (2018). Shedding light on the Early Pleistocene of TD6 (Gran Dolina, Atapuerca, Spain): The technological sequence and occupational inferences. PLoS One, 13(1), e0190889.

  128. Mounier, A., Marchal, F., & Condemi, S. (2009). Is Homo heidelbergensis a distinct species? New insight on the Mauer mandibule. Journal of Human Evolution, 56, 219–246.

  129. Mourre, V.. (2003). Implication culturelles de la technologie des hachereaux. Nanterre, Paris, Thèse de doctorat, Université de Paris X.

  130. Muttoni, G., Scardia, G., & Kent, D. V. (2010). Human migration into Europe during the late Early Pleistocene climate transition. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 296, 79–93.

  131. Muttoni, G., Scardia, G., & Kent, D. V. (2018). Early hominins in Europe: The Galerian migration hypothesis. Quaternary Science Reviews, 180, 1–29.

  132. Nicoud, E. (2013). Le paradoxe acheuléen. Editions du CTHS.

  133. Ollé, A., Mosquera, M., Rodríguez, X. P., de Lombera-Hermida, A., García-Antón, M. D., García-Medrano, P., et al. (2013). The Early and Middle Pleistocene technological record from Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain). Quaternary International, 295, 138–167.

  134. Panagopoulou, E., Tourloukis, V., Thompson, N., Athanassiou, A., Tsartsidou, G., Konidaris, G. E., et al. (2015). Marathousa 1: A new Middle Pleistocene archaeological site from Greece. Antiquity, 343.

  135. Palombo, M. R. (2014). Desconstructing mammal dispersals and faunal dynamics in SW Europe during the Quaternary. Quaternary Science Reviews, 96, 50e71.

  136. Palombo, M. R. (2017). Discrete dispersal bioevents of large mammals in Southern Europe in the post-Olduvai Early Pleistocene: A critical overview. Quaternary International, 431, 3–19.

  137. Pappu, S., Gunnell, Y., Akhilesh, K., Braucher, R., Taieb, M., Demory, F., et al. (2011). Early Pleistocene Presence of Acheulian Hominins in South India. Science, 331, 1596–1599.

  138. Parés, J. M., & Pérez-Gonzalez, A. (1999). Magnetostratigraphy and stratigraphy at Gran Dolina section, Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain). Journal of Human Evolution, 37, 325–342.

  139. Parés, J. M., Arnold, L., Duval, M., Demuro, M., Pérez-Gonzalez, A., Bermúdez de Castro, J. M., et al. (2013). Reassessing the age of Atapuerca-TD6 (Spain): New paleomagnetic results. Journal of Archaeological Science, 40, 4586–4595.

  140. Parfitt, S. A., Barendregt, R. W., Breda, M., Candy, I., Collins, M. J., Coope, G. R., et al. (2005). The earliest record of human activity in northern Europe. Nature, 438(15), 1008–1012.

  141. Parfitt, S. A., Ashton, N., Lewis, S. G., Abel, R. L., Coope, G. R., Mike, H. F., et al. (2010). Early Pleistocene human occupation at the edge of the boreal zone in northwest Europe. Nature, 466, 229–233.

  142. Pereira, A., Nomade, S., Voinchet, P., Bahain, J. J., Falguères, C., Garon, H., et al. (2015). The earliest securely dated hominin fossil in Italy and evidence of Acheulian occupation during glacial MIS 16 at Notarchirico (Venosa, Basilicata, Italy). Journal of Quaternary Science, 30(7), 639–650.

  143. Pereira, A. (2017). Apport de la datation 40AR/39AR à la compréhension de l’évolution culturelle des pré-néandertaliens en Italie centrale et méridionale entre 750 et 250 ka. Thèse de doctorat, Museum National d’histoire naturelle, Paris, Ecole Française de Rome et Université de Ferrare, Italie.

  144. Peretto, C., Arzarello, M., Gallotti, R., Lembo, G., Minelli, A., & Thun Hohenstein, U. (2004). Middle Pleistocene behavioural strategies: The contribution of Isernia La Pineta site. In Baquedano, E., Rubio Jara, S. (Eds.), Miscelanea en homenaje a Emiliano Aguirre, Volumen IV, Arqueologia (pp. 369–381). Museo Arqueologico Regional, Alcalá de Henares.

  145. Peretto, C., Arnaud, J., Moggi-Cecchi, J., Manzi, G., Nomade, S., Pereira, et al. (2015). A human deciduous tooth and new 40Ar/39Ar dating results from the Middle Pleistocene archaeological site of Isernia La Pineta, southern Italy. PLoS One, 10(10), e0140091.

  146. Piperno, M. (ed.) (1999). Notarchirico. Un sito del Pleistocene medio iniziale nel bacino di Venosa, Edizioni Osanna.

  147. Pope, M. (2018). Threshold in behavior, thresholds of visibility: Landscape processes, asymmetries in landscape records and niche construction in the formation of the Palaeolithic Record. In Pope, M., McNabb, J., Gamble, C. (eds). Crossing the Human Threshold. Dynamic Transformation and Persistent Places during the Middle Pleistocene. (pp. 24–41). Routledge. London.

  148. Preece, R. C., & Parfitt, S. A. (2012). The Early and early Middle Pleistocene context of human occupation and lowland glaciations in Britain and northern Europe. Quaternary International, 271, 6–28.

  149. Premo, L. S., & Hublin, J.-J. (2009). Culture, population structure, and low genetic diversity in Pleistocene hominins. PNAS, 106(1), 33–37.

  150. Rightmire, G. P. (2001). Patterns of hominid evolution and dispersal in the Middle Pleistocene. Quaternary International, 75, 77–84.

  151. Rightmire, G. P. (2009). Middle and later Pleistocene hominins in Africa and Southwest Asia. PNAS, 106(38), 16,046–16,050.

  152. Roberts, M., & Parfitt, S. (1999). Boxgrove: A Middle Pleistocene Hominid site at Eartham Quarry. West Sussex: English Herirage.

  153. Roche H. (2005). From simple flaking to shaping: Stone-knapping evolution among early hominids. In Roux, V., Brill, B. (Eds) Stone knapping. The necessary conditions for a uniquely hominin behavior (pp. 35–53). MacDonald Institute Monograph.

  154. Roche, H., Brugal, J. P., Lefevre, D., & Texier, P.-J. (1987). Premières données sur l’Acheuléen des hauts plateaux kényans: le site d’Isenya (district de Kajiado). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, 305(II), 529–532.

  155. Roche, H., Brugal, J. P., Lefevre, D., Ploux, S., & Texier, P.-J. (1988). Isenya: état des recherches sur un nouveau site acheuléen d’Afrique orientale. The African Archaeological Review, 6, 27–55.

  156. Roche, H., Brugal, J.-P., Delagnes, A., Feibel, C., Harmand, S., Kibunjia, M., et al. (2003). Les sites archéologiques plio-pléistocènes de la formation de Nachukui, Ouest-Turkana, Kenya: bilan synthétique 1997–2001. Comptes Rendus Palevol, 2, 663–673.

  157. Rodríguez, J., Burjachs, F., Cuenca-Bescós, G., García, N., van der Made, J., ..., Pérez-González, A. et al. (2011). One million years of cultural evolution in a stable environment at Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain). Quaternary Science Reviews, 30, 1396–1412.

  158. Roe, D. A. (1964). The British Lower and Middle Palaeolithic: Some problems, methods of study and preliminary results. Proceeding Prehistoric Society, 30, 245–267.

  159. Roe, D. A. (1981). The lower and middle Palaeolithic periods in Britain. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

  160. Rubio-Jara, S., Panera, J., Rodríguez-de-Tembleque, J., Santonja, M., & Pérez-González, A. (2016). Large flake Acheulean in the middle of Tagus basin (Spain): Middle stretch of the river Tagus valley and lower stretches of the rivers Jarama and Manzanares valleys. Quaternary International, 411, 349–366.

  161. Rugg, G. (2011). Quantifying technological innovation. In: Special Issue: Innovation and the evolution on human behavior. PaleoAnthropology, 154–165.

  162. Santagata, C. (2016). Operating systems in units B and E of the Notarchirico (Basilicata, Italy) ancient Acheulean open-air site and the role of raw materials. Quaternary International, 411, 284–300.

  163. Shchelinsky, V. E., Dodonov, A. E., Baigusheva, V. S., Kulakov, S. A., Simakova, A. N., Tesakov, A. S., et al. (2010). Early Palaeolithic sites on the Taman Peninsula (Southern Azov Sea region, Russia): Bogatyri/Sinyaya Balka and Rodniki. Quaternary International, 223–224, 28–35.

  164. Schick, K., & Clark, J. D. (2003). Biface technological development and variability in the Acheulean industrial complex in the Middle Awash Region of the Afar Rift, Ethiopia. In M. Soressi & H. L. Dibble (Eds.), Multiples approaches to the study of bifacial technologies. Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology (pp. 1–30). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania.

  165. Schreve, D., Moncel, M.-H., & Bridgland, D. (2015). Editorial: The early Acheulean occupation of western Europe: chronology, environment and subsistence behaviour. In: D. Schreve, M-H. Moncel, D. Bridgland, Special issue: Chronology, paleoenvironments and subsistence in the Acheulean of western Europe. Journal of Quaternary Science, 30(7), p. 585–593.

  166. Scott, G. R., & Gibert, L. (2009). The oldest hand-axes in Europe. Nature, 461, 82–85.

  167. Semaw, S., Rogers, M., & Stout, D. (2009). The Oldowan-Acheulian Transition: Is there a “Developed Oldowan” artifact tradition? In Camps, M., Chauhan, P. (Eds), Sourcebook of Paleolithic transitions (pp. 173–194). Springer.

  168. Sharon, G. (2008). The impact of raw material on Acheulian large flake production. Journal of Archaeological Science, 35(5), 1329–1344.

  169. Sharon, G. (2009). Acheulian Giant-Core Technology. Current Anthropology, 50(3), 335–367.

  170. Sharon, G. (2010). Large flake Acheulian. Quaternary International, 223–224, 226–233.

  171. Sharon, G. (2011). Flakes crossing the straits? Entame flakes and Northern Africa-Iberia contact during the Acheulean. African Archaeological Review, 28, 125–140.

  172. Sharon, G., Feibel, C., Alperson, N., Harlavan, Y., Feraud, G., Ashkenazi, S. et al. (2010). New evidence for the Northern Dead Sea Rift Acheulian. PaleoAnthropology, 79–99.

  173. Sharon, G., Alperson-Afil, N., & Goren-Inbar, N. (2011). Cultural conservatism and variability in the Acheulian sequence of Gesher Benot Yaaqov. Journal of Human Evolution, 60(4), 387–397.

  174. Sharon, G., & Barsky, D. (2016). The emergence of the Acheulian in Europe–A look from the east. Quaternary International, 411, 25–33.

  175. Shen, G., Michel, V., Despriée, J., Han, F., & Granger, D. E. (2012). Datation d’enfouissement par 26Al/10Be et son application préliminaire à des sites du Paléolithique Inférieur en Chine et en France. L’anthropologie, 116(1), 1–11.

  176. Shipton, C., & Clarkson, C. (2015). Handaxe reduction and its influence on shape: An experimental test and archaeological case study. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, 3, 408–419.

  177. Stiner, M. C. (2002). Carnivory, Coevolution, and the geographic spread of the genus Homo. Journal of Archaeological Research, 10(1), 1–63.

  178. Stringer, C. (1996). The Boxgrove Tibia: Britain’s Oldest Hominid and its place in the Middle Pleistocene Record. In Gamble, C., Lawson, A.J. (Eds), The English Heritage Reviewed (pp. 53–56). Wesses Archaeology.

  179. Stringer, C. (2012). The Status of Homo heidelbergensis (Schoetensack 1908). Evolutionary Anthropology, 21, 101–107.

  180. Stringer, C., Rose, J., & Silva, B. (2007). The context of the earliest human occupation of Britain, Symposium 100 Years Homo heidelbergensis (p. 12). Heidelberg: Germany.

  181. Tavoso, A. (1986). Le Paléolithique inférieur et moyen du Haut-Languedoc. Gisements des terrasses alluviales du Tarn, du Dadou, de l’Agout, du Sor et du Fresquel. Laboratoire de Paléontologie et de Préhistoire, Marseille. Université de Provence.

  182. Texier, P.-J. (2001). Du seuil de l’hominisation aux premières cultures: potentialité et apports de la taille expérimentale. Praehistoria, 2, 51–61.

  183. Texier, P.-J., & Roche, H. (1995). The impact of predetermination on the development of some Acheulean chaînes opératoires. In J. Bermúdez de Castro, J. L. Arsuaga, & E. Carbonell (Eds.), Evolucion humana en Europa y los yacimientos de la Sierra de Atapuerca (pp. 403–420). Vallaloid: Junta de Castilla y Leon.

  184. Texier, P. J. (2018). Technological assets for the emergence of the Acheulean? Reflections on the Kokiselei 4 lithic assemblage and its place in the archaeological context of west Turkana, Kenya. In M. Mussi & R. Gallotti (Eds.), The emergence of the Acheulean in East Africa and beyond (pp. 33–52). Cham: Springer.

  185. Turner, A. (1992). Large carnivores and earliest European hominids: Changing determinants of resource availability during the Lower and Middle Pleistocene. Journal of Human Evolution, 22, 109–126.

  186. Tuffreau, A., & Lamotte, A. (2010). Oldest Acheulean settlements in Northern France. Quaternary International, 223–224, 455.

  187. Vaesen, K., Collard, M., Cosgrove, R., & Roebroeks, W. (2016). Population size does not explain past changes in cultural complexity. PNAS, 113(16), E2241–E2247.

  188. Vallverdu, J., Saladié, P. S., Rosas, A., Huguet, R., Caceres, I., Mosquera, M., et al. (2014). Age and date for early arrival of the Acheulian in Europe (Barranc de la Boella, la Canonja, Spain). PlosOne, 9, e103634.

  189. Van Peer, P. (1998). The Nile Corridor and the Out-of-Africa Model. An examination of the Archaeological Record. Current Anthropology, 39, 115–139.

  190. Vermeersch, P. M. (2001). “Out of Africa” from an Egyptian point of view. Quaternary International, 75, 103–112.

  191. Villa, V., Pereira, A., Chausse, C., Nomade, S., Giaccio, B., Limondin-Lozouet, N., et al. (2016). A MIS 15-MIS 12 record of environmental changes and Lower Palaeolithic occupation from Valle Giumentina, central Italy. Quaternary Science Reviews, 151, 160–184.

  192. Voinchet, P., Despriée, J., Tissoux, H., Falguères, C., Bahain, J.-J., Gageonnet, R., et al. (2010). ESR chronology of alluvial deposits and first human settlements of the Middle Loire Basin (Region Centre, France). Quaternary Geochronology, 5, 381–384.

  193. Voinchet, P., Moreno, D., Bahain, J.-J.., Tissoux, H., Tombret, O., Falguères, C. et al. (2015). Chronological data (ESR and ESR/U-series) for the earliest Acheulean sites of northwestern Europe. In: D. Schreve, M-H. Moncel, D. Bridgland, Special issue: Chronology, paleoenvironments and subsistence in the Acheulean of western Europe. Journal of Quaternary Science, 30 (7), 610–623.

  194. Wagner, G. A., Krbetschek, M., Degering, D., Bahain, J.-J., Shao, Q., Falguères, C., et al. (2010). Radiometric dating of the type-site for Homo heidelbergensis at Mauer, Germany. PNAS, 107(46), 19,726–19,730.

  195. Wilkins, J., & Chazan, M. (2012). Blade production at 500 thousand years ago at Kathu Pan 1, South Africa: Support for a multiple origins hypothesis for early Middle Pleistocene blade technologies. Journal of Archaeological Science, 39(6), 1883–1900.

  196. White, M., Ashton, N., & Bridgland, D. (2019). Twisted handaxes in Middle Pleistocene Britain and their implications for regional-scale cultural variation and the deep history of Acheulean hominin groups, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society. Cambridge University Press, 1–21.

Download references

Acknowledgements

This study is part of a PremAcheuSept ANR (Agence National pour la Recherche n°2010 BLANC 2006 01). The project and fieldwork and sampling at several sites in the northwest of France and England aim to provide new data on occupations along the Palaeo-Thames, Somme and Loire Rivers before isotopic stage 12. Excavations at la Noira were funded by the Centre Region (Archéa association, France), the Department of Prehistory of the National Museum of Natural History and the French Ministry of Culture. The English manuscript was revised by Louise Byrne, official translator.

The comments made by the two reviewers were useful to help us to enhance the manuscript. Many thanks for their help. We would like also to thank the editor Shannon McPherron for his editing work.

Author information

Correspondence to Marie-Hélène Moncel.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Electronic Supplementary Material

ESM 1

(DOCX 3863 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Moncel, M., Despriée, J., Courcimaut, G. et al. La Noira Site (Centre, France) and the Technological Behaviours and Skills of the Earliest Acheulean in Western Europe Between 700 and 600 ka. J Paleo Arch (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s41982-020-00049-2

Download citation

Keywords

  • Europe
  • Early Acheulean
  • Technology
  • Bifaces
  • Core technology
  • Heavy-duty component