Local anesthetics in dentistry

  • Christy LottingerEmail author
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. General


Since the advent of their use over a hundred years ago, local anesthetics have continued to shape the field of dentistry and its specialties by providing the means with which to accomplish a multitude of procedures in an office setting without the need for a general anesthetic. In oral and maxillofacial surgery, local anesthetics have the added benefit of providing hemostasis to the surgical field, resulting in increased visualization and attenuation of blood loss. In addition, long-acting local anesthetics have become increasingly popular for the control of postoperative pain, mitigating the need for the prescription of narcotic pain medication. A variety of agents, both for topical use and for injection, are available on the market in the United States. While the mechanism of action of these local anesthetic agents is similar, each drug offers its own unique characteristics, allowing the practitioner to tailor his or her selection of local anesthetic to the needs of the patient and the demands of the procedure. The aim of this chapter will be to introduce the basic pharmacology of local anesthetic agents and to familiarize the reader with the variety of drugs currently available on the market, their unique properties, and potential risks and complications associated with their use.


Anesthesia Local Injection 


Further reading

  1. 1.
    Ferneini EM, Goupil MT (eds) Local anesthetics in dentistry. Evidence-based oral surgery, CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    AAPD (2015) 2017–18 definitions, oral health policies and recommendations. Use of local anesthesia for pediatric dental patients. AAPD, Chicago (Revised 2015. Accessed November 2017) Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Al-Mahalawy H, Abouhashish H, Chathoth S et al (2018) Articaine versus lidocaine concentration in the palatal tissues after supraperiosteal buccal infiltration anesthesia. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 76(2):315.e1–315.e7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Aronson JK (2016) Meyler’s side effects of drugs. The international encyclopedia of adverse drug reactions and interactions, 16th edn. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Boyce RA, Kirpalani T, Mohan N (2016) Updates of topical and local anesthetic agents. Dent Clin N Am 60(2):445–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hersh EV, Saraghi M, Moore PA (2016) Intranasal tetracaine and oxymetazoline: a newly approved drug formulation that provides maxillary dental anesthesia without needles. Curr Med Res Opin 3:1–7 (Epub ahead of print) Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hospira Inc (2017) Prescribing information: bupivacaine hydrochloride injectable. Hospira Inc., Lake Forest (Revised September 2017) Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of ConnecticutFarmingtonUSA

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