T-SEA: trust based secure and energy aware routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks

  • Deepika Kukreja
  • Deepak Kumar SharmaEmail author
Original Research


A trust based secure and energy aware (T-SEA) routing protocol for detection and isolation of black/gray hole nodes in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) is proposed in this paper. Energy aware characteristic is a vital requirement for prolonging MANET lifespan. Intrusion detection systems (IDSs) are used to monitor and catch black/gray hole nodes. Nodes having sufficient energy, high value of trust and maximum connections are selected as IDS capable nodes. T-SEA first detects suspicious nodes during data transfer phase without requiring any node to activate in sniff mode. Only few nodes (IDS nodes) out of IDS capable nodes function in sniff manner for monitoring during data transmission phase. During monitoring, IDS nodes detect a node as malicious based on nodes’ current behavior, current trust and behavior recorded during previous transmissions. The detection technique is energy aware since IDS executes only on few nodes at a time subsequent to the discovery of attack. This paper employs NS-2 to validate the proposed protocol.


Mobile ad hoc networks Intrusion detection system Energy aware Black hole attack Gray hole attack Security Trust Dynamic source routing protocol 


  1. 1.
    Ahila E, Chitra K (2014) Security based energy efficient routing protocol for adhoc network. In: Proc. of IEEE international conference on control, instrumentation, communication and computational technologies (ICCICCT), pp 1522–1526. ISBN: 978-1-4799-4191-9Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ahmed A, Bakar KA, Channa MI, Haseeb K, Khan AW (2016) A trust aware routing protocol for energy constrained wireless sensor network. Telecommun Syst 61:123–140. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Asadi M, Zimmerman C, Agah A (2013) A game theoretic approach to security and power conservation in wireless sensor networks. Int J Netw Secur 15:50–58Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Banergee S (2008) Detection/removal of cooperative black and gray hole attack in mobile ad-hoc networks. In: Proc. of the world congress on engineering and computer science (WCECS 2008), San Francisco, USA, pp 337–342. ISBN: 978-988-98671-0-2 WCECS 2008Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Biswas S, Nag T, Neogy S (2014) Trust based energy efficient detection and avoidance of black hole attack to ensure secure routing in MANET. In: Proc. of IEEE applications and innovations in mobile computing (AIMoC), pp 157–164. ISBN: 978-1-4799-3881-0
  6. 6.
    Cano J C, Kim D (2002) Investigating performance of power-aware routing protocols for mobile ad-hoc networks. In: Proc. of the international workshop on mobility and wireless access (MobiWac 2002). IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA, pp 80–86. ISBN: 0-7695-1843-5
  7. 7.
    Dhurandher S K, Woungang I, Traore I (2014) C-scan: an energy-efficient network layer security protocol for mobile ad hoc networks. In: Proc. of 28th IEEE international conference on advanced information networking and applications workshops (WAINA), pp 530–535. ISBN: 978-1-4799-2654-1
  8. 8.
    Estahbanati M M, Rasti M, Hamami S M S (2014) A mobile ad hoc network routing based on energy and markov chain trust. In: Proc. of IEEE 7th international symposium on telecommunications (IST), pp 596–601
  9. 9.
    Ghander A, Shaaban E (2015) Power aware cooperation enforcement MANET routing protocols. Procedia Comput Sci 73:162–171. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gong P, Chen TM, Xu Q (2015) ETARP: an energy efficient trust-aware routing protocol for wireless sensor networks. J Sens. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gonzalez OF, Howarth M, Pavlou G (2008) Detection and accusation of packet forwarding misbehavior in mobile ad hoc networks. J Internet Eng 2:181–192Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Heena, Kumar N (2014) Battery power and trust based routing strategy for MANET. In: Proc. of IEEE international conference on advanced communication control and computing technologies (ICACCCT), pp 1559–1562. ISBN: 978-1-4799-3915-2
  13. 13.
    Jain H R, Sharma S K (2014) Improved energy efficient secure multipath AODV routing protocol for MANET. In: Proc. of IEEE international conference on advances in engineering and technology research (ICAETR), pp 1–9.
  14. 14.
    Johnson DB, Maltz DA (1996) Dynamic source routing in ad hoc wireless networks. In: Mobile computing, the kluwer international series in engineering and computer science, vol 353. Springer, pp 153–18. ISBN: 978-0-7923-9697-0
  15. 15.
    Li J, Cordes D, Zhang J (2005) Power-aware routing protocols in ad hoc wireless networks. IEEE Wirel Commun 12:69–81. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Li Y, Peng S, Chu W (2006) An efficient algorithm for finding an almost connected dominating set of small size on wireless ad hoc networks. In: Proc. of 2006 IEEE international conference on mobile adhoc and sensor systems (MASS), pp 199–205. ISBN: 1-4244-0506-8
  17. 17.
    Marti S, Giuli T J, Lai K, Baker M (2000) Mitigating routing misbehavior in mobile ad hoc networks. In: Proc. of sixth annual international conference on mobile computing and networking (MobiCom ’00), Boston, USA, pp 255–265. ISBN:1-58113-197-6
  18. 18.
    Mohanapriya M, Krishnamurthi I (2014) Modified DSR protocol for detection and removal of selective black hole attack in MANET. Comput Electr Eng 40:530–538. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Murthy Siva Ram C, Manoj BS (2004) Ad hoc wireless networks: architectures and protocols. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle RiverGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Network Simulator 2 (NS–2). Accessed 13 Nov 2016
  21. 21.
    Sarkar S, Datta R (2012) A trust based protocol for energy-efficient routing in self-organized MANETs. In: Proc. of annual IEEE India conference (INDICON), pp 1084–1089. ISBN: 978-1-4673-2270-6
  22. 22.
    Sarkar S, Datta R (2014) A secure and energy-efficient stochastic routing protocol for wireless mobile ad-hoc networks. In: Proc. of IEEE twentieth national conference on communications (NCC), pp 1–6. ISBN: 978-1-4799-2363-2
  23. 23.
    Sarkar S, Datta R (2016) A secure and energy-efficient stochastic multipath routing for self-organized mobile ad hoc networks. Ad Hoc Netw 37:209–227. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sheu JP, Chao CM, Hu WK, Sun CW (2007) A clock synchronization algorithm for multihop wireless ad hoc networks. Wirel Pers Commun 43:185–200. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sridhar S, Baskaran R, Chandrasekar P (2013) Energy supported AODV (EN-AODV) for QoS routing in MANET, In: Proc. of the 2nd international conference on integrated information (IC-ININFO 2012), Budapest, Hungary, vol 73 of procedia-social and behavioral sciences, pp 294–301. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Su MY (2011) Prevention of selective black hole attacks on mobile ad hoc networks through intrusion detection systems. Comput Commun 34:107–117. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Subramaniam S, Ramachandran R (2014) Energy-and trust-based AODV for quality-of-service affirmation in MANETs. In: artificial intelligence and evolutionary algorithms in engineering systems, vol 324 of the series advances in intelligent systems and computing. Springer, Berlin, pp 601–607. ISBN: 978-81-322-2125-8Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Tan S, Li X, Dong Q (2015) Trust based routing mechanism for securing OSLR-based MANET. Ad Hoc Netw 30:84–98. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wang Y (2010) Study on energy conservation in MANET. J Netw 5:708–715Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Woungang I, Dhurandher S K, Sahai M (2013) An energy-aware secured routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks using trust-based multipath. In: grid and pervasive computing, vol 7861 of the series lecture notes in computer science. Springer, Berlin, pp 517–525. ISBN: 978-3-642-38026-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yang H, Shu J, Meng X, Lu S (2006) SCAN: self-organized network-layer security in mobile ad hoc networks. IEEE J Sel Areas Commun 24:261–273. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Yang T, Wei L (2007) Modified energy-aware DSR routing for ad hoc network. In: Proceedings of the international conference on wireless communications, networking and mobile computing (WiCom 2007), pp 1601–1603.
  33. 33.
    Zhang Y, Lee W (2005) Security in mobile ad-hoc networks. In: Ad hoc networks, pp 249–268. ISBN: 978-0-387-22689-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Bharati Vidyapeeth's Institute of Computer Applications and Management 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Information TechnologyNetaji Subhas University of Technology (Formerly Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology)New DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations