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Early Maladaptive Schemas Are Associated with Increased Suicidal Risk among Individuals with Schizophrenia

  • Shahdokht Azadi
  • Vahid KhosravaniEmail author
  • Kristin Naragon-Gainey
  • Farangis Sharifi Bastan
  • Ali Mohammadzadeh
  • Fatemeh Ghorbani
Article

Abstract

Early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) are a dysfunctional cognitive pattern that can result from maladaptive functioning during childhood. EMSs are broad patterns of memories, emotions, cognitions, and bodily sensations related to the self and others. The aims of this study were to evaluate EMSs among individuals with schizophrenia and to evaluate the relations of EMSs and clinical factors (e.g., depression, positive, and negative symptoms of psychosis) to suicidal risk (e.g., current suicidal ideation, lifetime suicide attempts). Eighty-two inpatients with schizophrenia completed the Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (YSQ-SF), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSSI), and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Individuals with schizophrenia who had attempted suicide (relative to those who had not attempted suicide) had significantly higher EMSs, current suicidal ideation, and a family history of suicide attempts. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the emotional deprivation schema, positive symptoms, and depression were significantly associated with current suicidal ideation. In addition, emotional deprivation was significantly associated with lifetime suicide attempts. These findings suggest that the emotional deprivation schema, positive symptoms, and depression may be related to suicide in individuals with schizophrenia.

Keywords

Early maladaptive schemas Suicidal risk Schizophrenia 

Notes

Contributors

All authors contributed to and have approved the final manuscript.

Compliance With Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declared that they have no conflict of interest.

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyIslamic Azad UniversityGachsaranIran
  2. 2.Psychosocial Injuries Research CenterIlam University of Medical SciencesIlamIran
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyUniversity at Buffalo, the State University of New YorkBuffaloUSA
  4. 4.Department of PsychologyPayame Noor UniversityTehranIran
  5. 5.Clinical Research Development Center of Loghman Hakim HospitalShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

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