Advertisement

Aerosol Science and Engineering

, Volume 3, Issue 3, pp 88–96 | Cite as

Characterizing Spatial Patterns of NO2 and SO2 in Xi’an by Passive Sampling

  • Jie Liu
  • Ping Wang
  • Zhaomei Liu
  • Qixiang Ma
  • Junning Liang
  • Jie Chen
  • Junji CaoEmail author
Original Paper
  • 11 Downloads

Abstract

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are important air pollutants that affect air quality, human health, and climate. The concentrations of NO2 and SO2 were measured in Xi’an, China with passive samplers deployed at 70 sites in summer and winter. The average concentrations of NO2 and SO2 were 19.82 μg m−3 and 2.24 μg m−3, respectively, in summer and 21.09 μg m−3 and 7.99 μg m−3 in winter. Statistical analyses showed that the seasonal differences in SO2 were significant but those for NO2 were not. The concentrations of NO2 and SO2 in the Beilin district were higher than other districts, while those in Baqiao were relatively low. The concentrations of NO2 in commercial mixed areas were higher compared with other functional areas, and SO2 in the residential/educational areas during winter was high. Spatial distributions of NO2 and SO2 were obtained by ordinary kriging interpolation, and the results showed high summertime NO2 concentrations in the central urban and northwestern parts of the sampling grid and high wintertime NO2 in the central part of the grid. Summer SO2 concentrations were higher in the northern and lower in the southern parts of the grid, while SO2 was in winter high in the mid-west and low in the east.

Keywords

Nitrogen dioxide Sulfur dioxide Spatial distribution Passive sampling Xi’an 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was funded by the Basic Special Work of Science and Technology (2013FY112500), National Atmospheric Research Program (2017YFC0212206). The authors thank En Hu, Fei Chen, Jixiang Yu, Zhenqiang Wang, Peng Dang, Ling Liu for their assistance in the field sampling and chemical analysis of the passive samples. The authors also thank the editors and the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments and suggestions on this paper.

References

  1. Atkins DHF, Lee DS (1995) Spatial and temporal variation of rural nitrogen dioxide concentrations across the United Kingdom. Atmos Environ 29:223–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brown RH (2000) Monitoring the ambient environment with diffusive samplers: theory and practical considerations. J Environ Monit 2:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cao JJ (2016) Major causes and control strategies of the PM2.5 pollution in China. Sci Technol Rev 34(20):74–80Google Scholar
  4. Cao JJ, Wu F, Chow JC, Lee SC, Li Y et al (2005) Characterization and source apportionment of atmospheric organic and elemental carbon during fall and winter of 2003 in Xi’an, China. Atmos Chem Phys 5:3127–3137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cao JJ, Shen ZX, Chow JC et al (2012) Winter and summer PM2.5 chemical compositions in fourteen Chinese cities. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 62(10):1214–1226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cheng YF, Zheng GJ, Wei C, Mu Q et al (2016) Reactive nitrogen chemistry in aerosol water as a source of sulfate during haze events in China. Sci Adv 2:e1601530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cox RM (2003) The use of passive sampling to monitor forest exposure to O3, NO2 and SO2: a review and some case studies. Environ Pollut 126:301–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dai QL, Bi XH, Song WB et al (2019) Residential coal combustion as a source of primary sulfate in Xi’an, China. Atmos Environ 196:66–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gibson MD, Heal MR, Li Zheng Y et al (2013) The spatial and seasonal variation of nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide in Cape Breton Highlands National Park, Canada, and the association with lichen abundance. Atmos Environ 64:303–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Han YM, Du PX, Cao JJ et al (2006) Multivariate analysis of heavy metal contamination in urban dusts of Xi’an, central China. Sci Total Environ 355:176–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hao JM, Wang LT, Li L, Hu JN, Yu XC (2005) Air pollutants contribution and control strategies of energy-use related sources in Beijing. Sci China Ser D Earth Sci 48(Supplement II):138–146Google Scholar
  12. Huang RJ, Zhang YL, Bozzetti C et al (2014) High secondary aerosol contribution to particulate pollution during haze events in China. Nature 514(7521):218–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Journel AG, Huijbregts CJ (1978) Mining geostatistics. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  14. Liang CP, Chen JS, Chien YC, Chen CF (2018) Spatial analysis of the risk to human health from exposure to arsenic contaminated groundwater: a kriging approach. Sci Total Environ 627:1048–1057CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lin WL, Xu XB, Ma ZQ et al (2012) Characteristics and recent trends of sulfur dioxide at urban, rural, and background sites in North China: effectiveness of control measures. J Environ Sci 24:34–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Liu WJ, Chen DZ, Liu XD et al (2007) Application of passive air sampling in monitoring of organochlorine pollutants in atmosphere. Res Environ Sci 20(4):9–14Google Scholar
  17. Meng ZY, Ding GA, Xu XB et al (2008) Vertical distributions of SO2 and NO2 in the lower atmosphere in Beijing urban areas, China. Sci Total Environ 390:456–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Meng K, Xu XD, Cheng XH et al (2018) Spatio-temporal variations in SO2 and NO2 emissions caused by heating over the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region constrained by an adaptive nudging method with OMI data. Sci Total Environ 642:543–552.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.06.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ouyang W, Gao B, Cheng HG, Hao ZC, Wu N (2018) Exposure inequality assessment for PM2.5 and the potential association with environmental health in Beijing. Sci Total Environ 635:769–778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Palmes ED, Gunnison AF (1973) Personal monitoring device for gaseous contaminants. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 34(2):78–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Pan HY, Lu XW, Lei K (2017) A comprehensive analysis of heavy metals in urban road dust of Xi’an, China: contamination, source apportionment and spatial distribution. Sci Total Environ 609:1361–1369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Perkauskas D, Mikelinskiene A (1998) Evaluation of SO2 and NO2 concentration levels in Vilnius (Lithuania) using passive diffusion samplers. Environ Pollut 102:249–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Roger MC (2003) The use of passive sampling to monitor forest exposure to O3, NO2 and SO2: a review and some case studies. Environ Pollut 126:301–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Shen L, Wang H, Lü S et al (2016) Observation of aerosol size distribution and new particle formation at a coastal city in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Sci Total Environ 565:1175–1184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Spengler JD, Duffy CP, Letz R et al (1983) Nitrogen dioxide inside and outside 137 homes and implications for ambient air quality standards and health effects research. Environ Sci Technol 17:164–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Stevenson K, Bush T, Mooney D (2001) Five years of nitrogen dioxide measurement with diffusion tube samplers at over 1000 sites in the UK. Atmos Environ 35:281–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Varshney CK, Singh AP (2003) Passive samplers for NOx monitoring: a critical review. Environmentalist 23:127–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wang P, Cao JJ, Shen ZX, Han YM, Lee SC et al (2015) Spatial and seasonal variations of PM2.5 mass and species during 2010 in Xi’an, China. Sci Total Environ 508:477–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wang GH, Zhang RY, Gomez MZ et al (2016) Persistent sulfate formation from London fog to Chinese haze. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 113:13630–13635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wu D, Wang YS, Pan YP et al (2010) Application of passive sampler to monitor and study atmospheric trace gases in Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei area. Environ Sci 21(12):2844–2851Google Scholar
  31. Xi’an Bureau of Statistics (XBS) (2018) Xi’an investigation team of national bureau of statistics (XITNBS), Xi’an Statistical Yearbook. China Statistics Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  32. Xu HM, Cao JJ, Chow JC, Huang RJ, Shen Z et al (2016) Inter-annual variability of wintertime PM2.5 chemical composition in Xi’an, China: evidences of changing source emissions. Sci Total Environ 545–546:546–555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Zhai CZ, Chen L, Zhong J et al (2015) Characterizing spatial patterns of SO2 and NOx in Chongqing urban area by passive sampling. Environ Sci Technol 38(8):136–139Google Scholar
  34. Zhang RY, Wang GH, Guo S et al (2015) Formation of urban fine particulate matter. Chem Rev 115:3803–3855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Zhang LS, Lee CS, Zhang R, Chen L (2017) Spatial and temporal evaluation of long term trend (2005–2014) of OMI retrieved NO2 and SO2 concentrations in Henan province, China. Atmos Environ 154:151–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Zhao Y, Shao M, Wang C et al (2011) Characterizing spatial patterns of NOx, SO2 and O3 in Pearl River Delta by passive sampling. Environ Sci 32(2):324–329Google Scholar
  37. Zheng CW, Zhao CF, Li YP et al (2018) Spatial and temporal distribution of NO2 and SO2 in inner Mongolia urban agglomeration obtained from satellite remote sensing and ground observations. Atmos Environ 188:50–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Aerosol Chemistry and Physics, Institute of Earth EnvironmentChinese Academy of SciencesXi’anChina
  2. 2.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.Shaanxi Provincial Academy of Environmental ScienceXi’anChina
  4. 4.Institute of Global Environmental ChangeXi’an Jiaotong UniversityXi’anChina

Personalised recommendations